==Fauna== The wild animals of Arabia are all of the desert-loving type: antelopes and gazelles are found in small numbers throughout the peninsula; the latter are similar to the chikara or ravine deer of India.
Bears are no longer numerous; the panther and the ounce are met with; the wild hog, hyaena, wolf and fox are by no means rare; jackals and gazelles are very common.
It follows that the subfamily typified by this species, in which are included the gazelles, is the one to which alone the term antelopes should be applied if it were employed in a restricted and definable sense.
The South African springbuck (Antidorcas euchore) is nearly related to the gazelles, from which it is distinguished by the presence on the middle line of the loins of an evertible pouch, lined with long white hairs capable of erection.
The dibatag or Clarke's gazelle (Ammodorcas clarkei), of Somaliland, forms a kind of connecting link between the true gazelles and the gerenuk, this being especially shown in the skull.
The face has the ordinary gazelle-markings; but the rather short horns - which are wanting in the female - have a peculiar upward and forward curvature, unlike that obtaining in the gazelles FIG.
The neck is longer and more slender than in ordinary gazelles, and the tail is likewise relatively long.
Gazelles are common in the Miocene and Pliocene of both Europe and Asia.
The site is now partly occupied by Dineir (q.v., sometimes locally known also as Geiklar, " the gazelles," perhaps from a tradition of the Persian hunting-park, seen by Xenophon at Celaenae), which is connected with Smyrna by railway; there are considerable remains, including a great number of important Graeco-Roman inscriptions.
Bats, various species of rodents, and gazelles are very common, as is the ibex in the valleys of the Dead Sea.
The four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) and the gazelle (Gazelles bennetti), the chinkara or " ravine deer " of sportsmen, are also found in India.
Its prey is said to consist largely of gazelles, small deer, hares and peafowl and other birds.
There are large herds of buffalo and antelope, and gazelles of many varieties and in great numbers are met with in most parts of the country.
The goddess consents, and creates Eabani, who is described as a wild man, living with the gazelles and the beasts of the field.
In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.
The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic;'group. They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations of species and races.
Gazelles (Gazella), which form by far the largest genus of the subfamily, are inhabitants of open and frequently more or less desert districts.
Gazelles may be divided into groups.
Numerous gazelles inhabit the deserts.