Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Valens the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia.
The absence of all mention of either Gauls or Romans seems to prove that this time was at least earlier than 400 B.C.; and the curse may have been composed long before it was written down.
About 280 a host of Gauls under Cerethrius defeated the Getae and Triballi (Justin xxv.
We know from the Roman historians that a large force of Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 390 B.C., and that some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known as the Ager Gallicus, the easterdmost strip of coast in what was later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesna, Ravenna and -Ariminum.
Although these annals were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were finally published in eighty books.
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language.
Claudius Quadrigarius (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later.
According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae.
The Gauls of the Three Provinces, or some of them, revolted in A.D.
In general, the Gauls of these provinces accepted Roman civilization more or less rapidly, and in due course became hardly distinguishable from the Italian.
Throughout the valley of the Po the Gauls took the place of the Etrurians as a conquering power; but Ravenna may possibly have retained its Umbrian character until, about the year 191 B.C., by the conquest of the Boii, the whole of this region passed definitely under the dominion of Rome.
Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."
Under Honorius, it became the seat of the prefecture of the Gauls and one of the foremost cities in the western empire.
In 278 the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory which Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr.
The Gauls were accustomed to offer human sacrifices, usually criminals.
Cicero remarks on the existence among the Gauls of augurs or soothsayers, known by the name of Druids, with one of whom, Divitiacus, an Aeduan, he was acquainted.
The confusion was aggravated by the incursion of the Gauls into the Balkan Peninsula in 279; Ptolemy Ceraunus perished, and a period of complete anarchy succeeded in Macedonia.
In 276 Antigonus Gonatas, the son of Demetrius, after inflicting a crushing defeat on the Gauls near Lysimachia, at last won Macedonia definitively for his house.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
These last were chosen from the most warlike races - as the Samnites, Gauls and Thracians.
In 63 B.C. Pompey placed it (together with the Tectosagan territory) under one chief, and it continued under native rule till it became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia in 25 B.C. By this time the population included Greeks, Jews, Romans and Romanized Gauls, but the town was not yet Hellenized, though Greek was spoken.
In 223, when consul with P. Furius Philus, he took the field against the Gauls, who were said to have been roused to war by his agrarian law.
Subsequently the Romans, when besieged in the Capitol by the Gauls, created him dictator; he completely defeated the enemy (but see Brennus and Rome: History, ii., "The Republic") and drove them from Roman territory.
He dissuaded the Romans, disheartened by the devastation wrought by the Gauls, from migrating to Veii, and induced them to rebuild the city.
He afterwards fought successfully against the Aequi, Volsci and Etruscans, and repelled a fresh invasion of the Gauls in 367.
In his various campaigns he defeated successively the Gauls, the Volscians, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Marsians.
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
After the retreat of the Gauls Byzantium rendered considerable services to Rome in the contests with Philip II., Antiochus and Mithradates.
Claudius Marcellus defeated the Gauls and won the spolia opima; in 218 Hannibal took it and its stores of corn by treachery.
Claudius Marcellus in 222 over the Gauls in a play called Clastidium, he gave the first specimen of the fabula praetexta in his Alimonium Romuli et Remi, based on the most national of all Roman traditions.
A raid on Delphi attempted by the Persians in 480 B.C. was said to have been frustrated by the god himself, by means of a storm or earthquake which hurled rocks down on the invaders; a similar tale is told of the raid of the Gauls in 279 B.C. But the sacrilege thus escaped at the hands of foreign invaders was inflicted by the Phocian defenders of Delphi during the Sacred War, 356-346 B.C., when many of the precious votive offerings were melted down.
At the time of the invasion of the Gauls in 391 B.C., on the other hand, Clusium was on friendly terms with Rome; indeed, it was the action of the Roman envoys who had come to intercede for the people of Clusium with the Gauls, and then, contrary to international law, took part in the battle which followed, which determined the Gauls to march on Rome.
In Umbria near Camerinum), a battle occurred in 296 B.C. between the Gauls and Samnites combined, and the Romans; a little later the united forces of Clusium and Perusia were defeated by the Romans.
The precise period at which Clusium came under Roman supremacy is, however, uncertain, though this must have happened before 225 B.C., when the Gauls advanced as far as Clusium.
Bruzen Lamartiniere states in his Dictionnaire Geographique that the Gauls and Bretons called it by a word signifying "the forest," which was turned into Latin as Arduenna silva, and he thinks it quite probable that the name was really derived from the Celtic word ardu (dark, obscure).
It allied itself with the Gauls in 361 B.C., and in the war which followed the towns of Empulum and Saxula were destroyed (their sites are unknown) and triumphs over Tibur were celebrated in 360 and 354 B.C., and again in 338, when its forces were defeated, with those of Praeneste.
Antonius Gnipho, a native of Gaul (by which Cisalpine Gaul may be meant), who is said to have been equally learned in Greek and Latin literature, and to have set up in later years a school of rhetoric which was attended by Cicero in his praetorship 66 B.C. It is possible that Caesar may have derived from him his interest in Gaul and its people and his sympathy with the claims of the Romanized Gauls of northern Italy to political rights.
The next two years witnessed the final struggle of the Gauls for freedom.
But the power of the Gauls was not yet broken.
In the 1st century, when St Paul made his missionary journeys, even the towns Ancyra, Pessinus and Tavium (where Gauls were few) were not Hellenized, though Greek, the language of government and trade, was spoken there; while the rural population was unaffected by Greek civilization.
Torquis, torques, a twisted collar, torquere, to twist), the term given by archaeologists to the twisted collars or armlets of gold or other metal worn particularly by the ancient Gauls and other allied Celtic races.
The coherent civilization of the Romans was accepted by the Britons, as it was by the Gauls, with something like enthusiasm.
Pope Zosimus (417) made trial of a similar organization in the hope of attaching the churches of the Gauls more closely to himself.
It was an opponent of Rome at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 3rd century B.C., but soon sought for help against the attacks of the Gauls, against whom it was almost a frontier fortress.
In 3 87, after the departure of the Gauls, southern Etruria was conquered, and four new tribes were formed: Arnensis (probably derived from Aro, mod.
Disunion, however, was at work in the rebel camp. The Gauls and Germans, who had withdrawn from the main body, were attacked and destroyed.
The Rhine practically formed the boundary between Gauls and Germans, though one Gaulish tribe, the Menapii, is said to have been living beyond the Rhine at its mouth, and shortly before the arrival of Caesar an invading force of Germans had seized and settled down in what is now Alsace, 72 B.C. At this time the Gauls were being pressed by the Germans along the whole frontier, and several of Caesars campaigns were occupied with operations, either against the Germans, or against Gaulish tribes set in motion by the Germans.
Some time before 164 B.C. Pessinus fell into the power of the Gauls, and the membership of the priestly college was then equally divided between the Gauls and the old priestly families.
Gauls, Samnites, Tyrrhenians, fought for him, while mercenary Greeks and Syracusan exiles fought for Carthage.
The Achaeans, or Hellenes, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into the southern lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale.
When Rome began to interfere in Asia Minor, its first action was to break the power of the Gauls (189 B.C.).
They certainly joined in the revolt of the Gauls under Hamilcar (200), but after they had been defeated by the consul Gaius Cornelius (197) they finally submitted.
When on the third day the Gauls took possession, they found the city occupied only by those aged patricians who had held high office in the state.
For a while the Gauls withheld their hands out of awe and reverence, but the ruder passions soon prevailed.
At last the Gauls consented to accept a ransom of a thousand pounds of gold.
The Gauls returned home with their plunder, leaving Rome in a condition from which she took long to recover.
(2) The second Brennus is said to have been one of the leaders of an inroad made by the Gauls from the east of the Adriatic into Thrace and Macedonia (280), when they defeated and slew Ptolemy Ceraunus, then king of Macedonia.
Brennus and his Gauls marched on to Delphi, of whose sacred treasures they had heard much.
The name of the place is unknown: it was partially inhabited later by the Gauls, but was not occupied by the Romans.
That the Romans had borrowed some things in the art of hunting from the Gauls may be inferred from the name canis gallicus (Spanish galgo) for a greyhound, which is to be met with both in Ovid and Martial; also in the words (canis) vertragus and segusius, both of Celtic origin.'
The final castastrophe was the invasion of the Gauls about 270 to 250; and, though the circumstances of this invasion are almost unknown, yet we may safely reckon among them the complete devastation of northern Phrygia.