Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
The tenth region included Venetia from the Padus and Adriatic to the Alps, to which was annexed the neighboring peninsula of Istria, and to the west the territory of the Cenomani, a Gaulish tribe, extending from the Athesis to the Addua, which had previously been regarded as a part of Gallia Cisalpina.
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
Druida) probably represents a Gaulish druid-s, Irish drui, gen.
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
BIBRACTE, an ancient Gaulish town, the modern Mont Beuvray, near Autun in France.
ALESIA, the ancient name for a hill in central France, now Alise-Ste-Reine (department Cote d'Or), where in 52 B.C. Caesar besieged the Gaulish national leader Vercingetorix within enormous entrenchments, forced him to surrender, and thus practically ended his conquest of Gaul.
His principal works (1 579, 1 599) treat of Gaulish and French antiquities, of the dignities and magistrates of France, of the origin of the French language and poetry, of the liberties of the Gallican church, &c. A collected edition was published in 1610.
The ancient Verona was a town of the Cenomani, a Gaulish tribe, whose chief town was Brixia.
Later, when Gaul had been subdued, the place was dismantled and its Gaulish inhabitants resettled 4 m.
In the strict sense (Galatia Proper, Roman Gallograecia) this is the name applied by Greek-speaking peoples to a large inland district of Asia Minor since its occupation by Gaulish tribes in the 3rd century B.C. Bounded on the N.
The Gaulish invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278-277 B.C. They numbered 20,000, of which only one-half were fighting men, the rest being doubtless women and children; and not long after their arrival we find them divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages, each of which claimed a separate sphere of operations.
The constitution of the Galatian state is described by Strabo: conformably to Gaulish custom, each tribe was divided into four cantons (Gr.
It was founded by the Romans in 181 B.C. as a frontier fortress on the north-east, not far from the site where, two years before, Gaulish invaders had attempted to settle.
The story is in itself by no means improbable, while the dates assigned to the first invasion by various Welsh, Gaulish and English authorities, with one exception all fall within about a quarter of a century, viz.
From the time of Caesar onwards the former were known to the Romans as " Germani," a name of uncertain but probably Gaulish origin.
Said to have encountered are the Cimbri and Teutoni, probably from Denmaik, who invaded Illyria, Gaul and Italy towards the end of the 2nd century B.C. When Caesar arrived in Gaul the westernmost part of what is now Germany was in the possession of Gaulish tribes.
The Rhine practically formed the boundary between Gauls and Germans, though one Gaulish tribe, the Menapii, is said to have been living beyond the Rhine at its mouth, and shortly before the arrival of Caesar an invading force of Germans had seized and settled down in what is now Alsace, 72 B.C. At this time the Gauls were being pressed by the Germans along the whole frontier, and several of Caesars campaigns were occupied with operations, either against the Germans, or against Gaulish tribes set in motion by the Germans.
Of the Gaulish tribes west of the Rhine, the most important was the Treveri, inhabiting the basin of the Moselle, from whom the cityof Trier(Trves)derives its name.
It appears to be a Gaulish term, and there is no evidence that it was ever used by the Germans themselves.
The overthrow of the Menapii, the last Gaulish tribe beyond the Rhine.
Caesar also mentions a Gaulish tribe named Volcae Tectosages as living in Germany in his time.
In the east a Gaulish people named Cotini are mentioned, apparently in the upper basin of the Oder, and Tacitus speaks of a tribe in the same neighborhood, the Osi, who he says spoke the Pannonian language.
He also gave help to Sparta against Thebes, sending Gaulish and Iberian mercenaries to take part in Greek warfare.
Martin, too, had denounced the worldliness and greed of the Gaulish bishops and clergy.
Severus evidently approves the action of the British and Gaulish bishops, who deemed it unbecoming that they should lie under pecuniary obligation to the emperor.
Thus, corresponding to the Latin quattuor, we find the Oscan petora, the Gaulish petor-ritum, " four-wheeler," the Welsh pedwar, " four," &c., while the Irish cethir, " four," corresponds more closely to the Latin.
Gaulish, which was supplanted in France by Latin, had p, as in petor-ritum, " fourwheeled car," and is thus allied to the Brythonic group; but it is believed that remains of a continental Celtic qu- dialect appear in such names as Sequani, and in some recently discovered inscriptions.
(2) After nasals p, t, c, b, d, g became respectively mh, nh, ngh, m, n, ng; thus 2mperator gave ymherawdr, and ambactos (evidently a Brythonic as well as a Gaulish word) gave amaeth (m, though etymologically double, is written single).
Partly by clever diplomacy, partly through the troubles caused by the Gaulish invasion and by the dissensions among the rival kings, Philetaerus contrived to keep on good terms with his neighbours on all sides (283-263 B.C.).
In 180 B.C. and decorated with a combat of gods and giants, symbolic of the struggle between the Pergamene Greeks and the Gaulish barbarians.
The British bishops had grown alarmed at the rapid growth of Pelagianism in Britain and sought the aid of the Gaulish church.
Like the Gaulish druids described by Caesar, the poet (fili) and the druid possessed a huge stock of unwritten native lore, probably enshrined in verse which was learnt by rote by their pupils.
The name Bodb appears on a Gaulish stone as (Cathu-) bodvae.
In ancient Irish literature the functions of the druids correspond fairly closely to those of their Gaulish brethren recorded by Caesar and other writers of antiquity.
There is one passage which seems to support the view that they agreed with the Gaulish druids in this respect, but it is not safe to deny the possible influence of Christian teaching in the document in question.
This is the case, for instance, in the Celtic languages; and the Breton or Gaulish names have affected the Latin system, so that the French names for some numbers are on the vigesimal system.
So about the year 440 the Gaulish poet Orientius wrote of Christ; Piscis natus aquis, auctor baptismatis ipse est.
The dominion of the Goths was now strictly Gaulish; their lasting Spanish dominion does not yet begin.
A time of confusion followed the fall of Alaric II., and, as that prince was the son-in-law of Theodoric, the East Gothic king stepped in as the guardian of his grandson Amalaric, and preserved for him all his Spanish and a fragment of his Gaulish dominion.
He reunited the Gaulish and Spanish parts of the kingdom which had been parted for a moment; he united the Suevian dominion to his own; he overcame some of the independent districts, and won back part of the recovered Roman province in southern Spain.
Gaul (Toulouse or perhaps Poitiers), and belonged, like Sidonius, to one of the great governing families of the Gaulish provinces.