The railways are of different gauges, the standard narrow gauge of 4 ft.
Her eyes swept over all the gauges on the console.
Unqualified reliance upon single gauges in the past has been the cause of serious errors in the estimated relation between rainfall and flow off the ground.
Gauge have mostly been converted, or a third rail has been laid to permit interchange of vehicles, and the gauges of 5 ft.
In Great Britain railways are built to gauges other than 4 ft.
6 in., but there is a large mileage of other gauges, especially metre.
The American engineer is more fortunately situated than his English brother with regard to the possibility of a solution, as will be seen from the comparative diagrams of construction gauges, figs.
This unity of the man in his work makes it difficult, for one who knew him, to be sure that one rightly gauges the purely literary significance of the latter.
When this building of railways began in Japan, much discussion was taking place in England and India as to the relative advantages of the wide and narrow gauges, and so strongly did the arguments in favor of the latter appeal to the English advisers of the Japanese government that the metre gauge was chosen.
In Sir Andrew Noble's researches a number of plugs were inserted in the side of the experimental gun, reaching to the bore and carrying crusher-gauges, and also chronographic appliances which registered the passage of the shot in the same manner as the electric screens in Bashforth's experiments; thence the velocity and energy of the shot was inferred, to serve as an independent control of the crusher-gauge records (figs.
-- "Gauges," as understood at one time, included only those used in the measurement of barrels, casks, &c., and hence the term "gauger."
For engineering and manufacturing purposes the more important linear gauges are, however, now used, adjusted to some fundamental unit of measure as the inch; although in certain trades, as for wires and flat metals, gauges continue to be used of arbitrary scales and of merely numerical sizes, having no reference to a legal unit of measure; and such are rarely accurate.
The star-gauges of the Herschels exhibit a similar result; the Herschels counted the number of stars visible with their powerful telescopes in different regions of the sky, and thus formed comparative estimates of the density of the stars extending to a very high magnitude.
For this purpose, if there are no rain-gauges on the drainage area in question, an estimate may be formed from numerous gaugings throughout the country, most of which are published in British Rainfall, initiated by the late Mr G.
The neglect of these facts has led to many errors in estimating the mean rainfall on watershed areas from the fall observed at gauges in particular parts of those areas.
The relative depths recorded in the several gauges depend mainly upon the direction of the valley and steepness of the bounding hills.
The earliest records of such gauges should be carefully examined, and if any apparently anomalous result is obtained, the cause should be traced, and when not found in the gauge itself, or in its treatment, other gauges should be used to check it.
The central gauge is useful for correcting and checking the others, but in such a perfectly simple case as the straight valley above assumed it may be omitted in calculating the results, and if the other four gauges are properly placed, the arithmetical mean of their results will probably not differ widely from the true mean for the valley.
But such records carried on for a year or many years would afford no knowledge of the worst conditions that could arise in longer periods, were it not for the existence of much older gauges not far distant and subject to somewhat similar conditions.
The nearer such long-period gauges are to the local gauges the more likely are their records to rise and fall in the same proportion.
Symons, F.R.S., of the Meteorological Office and of the Royal Meteorological Society, has resulted in the establishment of a vast number of raingauges in different parts of the United Kingdom, and it is generally, though not always, found that the mean rainfall over a long period can be determined, for an area upon which the actual fall is known only for a short period, by assigning to the missing years of the shortperiod gauges, rainfalls bearing the same proportion to those of corresponding years in the long-period gauges that the rainfalls of the known years in the short-period gauges bear to those of corresponding years in the long-period gauges.
In making such comparisons, it is always desirable, if possible, to select as standards longperiod gauges which are so situated that the short-period district lies.
Where suitably placed long-period gauges exist, and where care has been exercised in ascertaining the authenticity of their, records and in making the comparisons, the short records of the local gauges may be thus carried back into the long periods with nearly correct results.
If, therefore, instead of regarding only the mean rainfall of several gauges over a series of years, we compare the relative falls in short intervals of time among gauges yielding the same general averages, the discrepancies prove to be very great, and it follows that the maximum possible intensity of discharge from different areas rapidly increases as the size of the watershed decreases.