Gauge, with a ruling gradient of I in 40, a maximum speed of 15 m.
Gauge for the London & North-Western railway, fig.
Gauge and 50 metres for the 75 m.
The line is of m metre gauge, with steel rails weighing 212 kilos (42 lb) per yard.
Its width depends on the numbers of tracks and their gauge; for a double line of standard gauge it is about 25 ft., a space of 6 ft.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.
Gauge, type IV.
On the continent of Europe the standard gauge is generally adopted, though in France there are many miles of 4 ft.
As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
The minor lines (many of them narrow gauge) remain in the hands of private companies.
And further, it is said, established what has become the standard gauge of the world, 4 ft.
Brunel on the Great Western railway, where, however, it was abandoned after the line was converted from broad to standard gauge in 1892.
Accidents due to simple climbing are, however, exceedingly rare, and are usually found associated with a faulty track, with " plunging " movements of the locomotive or vehicle, or with a " tight gauge " at curves or points.
The gauge of a railway is the distance between the inner edges of the two rails upon which the wheels run.
Gauge have mostly been converted, or a third rail has been laid to permit interchange of vehicles, and the gauges of 5 ft.
The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
Brunel adopted for the Great Western railway disappeared on the 20th-23rd of May 1892, when the main line from London to Penzance was converted to standard gauge throughout its length.
Gauge; the normal Spanish and Portuguese gauge is, however, 5 ft.
In France and other European countries there is also an important mileage of metre gauge, and even narrower, on lines of local or secondary importance.
In the British colonies the prevailing gauge is 3 ft.
Though the standard gauge is in use in Lower Egypt, the line into the Egyptian Sudan was built on a gauge of 3 ft.
The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.
They are nearly always placed transversely, across the direction of the lines, the longitudinal position such as was adopted in connexion with the broad gauge on the Great Western in England having been abandoned except in special cases.
When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.
The advantage of uniformity of gauge is in the use of trucks for goods which belong to the rolling stock of the main lines.
The real light railway of Italy is that of type IV.: gauge, 0.95 m.
82 in., the standard national gauge, and 1 ft.
The distortion of the spring determines the actual force which the wind is exerting on the plate, and this is either read off on a suitable gauge, or leaves a record in the ordinary way by means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved by clockwork.
Where the rail-gauge is narrow and great weight is not desired, blocking girders are provided across the under side of the truck; these are arranged so that, by means of wedges or screws, they can be made to increase the base.
Gauge and vice versa, this does not constitute a break of gauge for traffic purposes.