T, tentacle; g.p, gastric pouch; r.c, radial canal not present in C and C'; c.c, circular or ring-canal; e.1, endoderm-lamella formed by concrescence.
The diluted acid is used internally to relieve vomiting or gastric pain.
St.g, Stomato-gastric ganglion.
St.g, Stomato-gastric ganglion.
In medicine copper sulphate was employed as an emetic, but its employment for this purpose is now very rare, as it is exceedingly depressant, and if it fails to act, may seriously damage the gastric mucous membrane.
It is used in the treatment of haemoptysis in the form of a fine spray, or taken internally it will check gastric haemorrhage.
The object of taking no liquid with meals is that it ensures mastication being more complete, because persons cannot wash the unmasticated food down by drinking, and it prevents the gastric juice from being greatly diluted, and so allows it to digest more rapidly.
When the secretion of gastric juice is deficient it may be excited by gastric tonics, such as ten grains of bicarbonate of soda and a drachm of compound tincture of gentian in water shortly before meals, and may be supplemented by the administration of pepsin and hydrochloric acid after meals.
It has already been mentioned that water is absolutely necessary for the body: by taking it hot it does not lie like a weight on the stomach, and by taking it an hour before meals it washes out the remnants of the previous meal; and being absorbed into the blood, it probably renders the secretion of gastric juice freer and accelerates digestion, instead of diluting it and interfering with the digestive processes.
Simple alkaline waters containing carbonates, chiefly of sodium along with some magnesium and calcium, are drunk for their utility in gastric and intestinal disorders as well as in rheumatism and gout.
The Scyphozoa have the following features in common: - They typically exhibit an ectodermal stomodaeum; partitions or mesenteries project into their coelenteron from the body-wall, and on these are generally concentrated digestive cells (to form mesenterial filaments, phacellae or gastric filaments, &c.); the external musculature of the body-wall is circular (except in Cerianthus); the internal, longitudinal; and the sexual cells probably always arise in the endoderm.
It often relieves hunger, by arresting the secretion of gastric j uice and the movements of the stomach and bowel,'* and it frequently upsets digestion from the same cause.
But apomorphine is not always to be obtained, and even if it be administered it may fail, since the gastric wall is often paralysed in opium poisoning, so that no emetic can act.
The gonads are formed in the endoderm (hence " Entocarpeae "), and the generative products are shed into the gastric cavity and pass to the exterior by way of the mouth.
On the floor of the stomach are borne the conspicuous gonads (ov), and also tentacle-like processes termed gastric filaments or phacellae, projecting into the cavity of the stomach.
(I) In the former class the eggs are extruded with the faeces, and the young become fully formed within the egg, and when accidentally swallowed by their host are liberated by the solvent action of the gastric juice and complete their development.
The stomach may be altogether lodged in the manubrium, from which the radial canals then take origin directly as in Geryonia (Trachomedusae); it may be with or without gastric pouches.
In this order the radial canals are represented only by wide gastric pouches, and in the family Solmaridae are suppressed altogether, so that the tentacles and the festoons of the ring-canal arise directly from the stomach.
- Margin of the umbrellalobed, tentacles arising from the ex-umbrella at some distance from the margin; tentaculocysts exposed, not enclosed in vesicles; gonads on the sub-umbral floor of the stomach or of the gastric pouches.
The radial canals are represented by wide gastric pouches, and may be absent, so that the tentacles arise directly from the stomach (Solmaridae).
No gastric pouches; the numerous tentacles arise direct from the stomach, into which also the peronial canals open, so that the ring-canal is cut up into separate festoons.
The food passing into the crop is there acted on by the saliva and also by an acid gastric juice which passes forwards from the stomach through the proventriculus.
Of these iron and ammonium citrate is much used as a haematinic, and as it has hardly any tendency to cause gastric irritation or constipation it can be taken when the ordinary forms of iron are inadmissible.
He suffered from infancy from great fragility of health, and nearly died in 1858 of gastric fever, which left much constitutional weakness behind it.
It is useful in haemorrhage from a gastric ulcer or in haemorrhage from the intestine.
3 and 4, snp), and further a dorsal gastric canal and arterial canal which transmit the alimentary tract and the dorsal artery respectively (figs.
Alimentary Canal and Gastric Glands.
The only point in which the gut of Limulus resembles that of Scorpio rather than that of any of the Crustacea, is in possessing more than a single pair of ducts or lateral outgrowths connected with ramified gastric glands or gastric caeca.
The minute microscopic structure of the gastric glands in the two animals is practically identical.
The functions of these gastric diverticula have never been carefully investigated.
It is very probable that in Scorpio they do not serve merely to secrete a digestive fluid (shown in other Arthropoda to resemble the pancreatic fluid), but that they also become distended by the juices of the prey sucked in by the scorpion - as certainly must occur in the case of the simple unbranched gastric caeca of the spiders.
A, prosomatic gastric gland (sometimes called salivary).
D, Mesosomatic gastric caeca (so-called liver).
- The alimentary canal and gastric glands of a scorpion (A) and of Limulus (B).
Sal, Prosomatic pair of gastric caeca in Scorpio, called salivary glands by some writers.
C 1, and c 2, The anterior two pairs of gastric caeca and ducts of the mesosomatic region.
The alimentary canal is uncoiled and cylindrical, and gives rise laterally to large gastric glands, which are more than a single pair in number (two to six pairs), and may assume the form of simple caeca.
For the diseases of the stomach in general see Digestive Organs; and for special forms Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia, &C.; also Abdomen (Abdominal Surgery).
Chronic gastric ulcer is not unfrequently the starting point of cancer.
The invasion of the lymphatic glands and the spreading of the growth into neighbouring organs, render the successful operative treatment of gastric cancer hazardous and disappointing.
In the case of pyloric obstruction a permanent opening may be established between the stomach and a neighbouring piece of intestine, so that the food may find its way along the alimentary canal greatly to the relief of the symptoms of gastric dilatation.
In the case of gastric dilatation from pyloric obstruction great relief may be afforded by washing out the viscus by means of a long rubber tube, a funnel, and a jug of hot water, as originally suggested by Adolf Kussmaul.
Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.
It also tends to lessen the sensibility of the stomach and so may relieve gastric pain.
In a 50% solution or stronger - as when neat whisky is taken - alcohol precipitates the pepsin which is an essential of gastric digestion, E.nd thereby arrests this process.
The continued use of large doses of alcohol produces chronic gastritis, in which the continued irritation has led to overgrowth of connective tissue, atrophy of the gastric glands and permanent cessation of the gastric functions.
Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given in doses of io grains half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity.
Sodium bicarbonate is one of our most useful gastric sedatives and antacids, relieving pain in hyperchloridia.
Effervescent soda water is a mild gastric sedative.
In the stomach potassium salts neutralize the gastric acid, and hence small doses are useful in hyperchloridia.
As a result of this change of form the gastric cavity or coelenteron becomes of compressed lenticular form, and the endoderm lining it can be distinguished as an upper or exumbral layer and a lower or subumbral layer.
He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.
Internally strychnine acts as a bitter, increasing the secretion of gastric juice and the intestinal peristalsis, being a direct stimulant to the muscular coat; in this manner it has a purgative action.
It has also been employed in the treatment of gastric ulcer in doses of 2 to 4 grs.
In some abdominal conditions, for instance, opium is still preferred by the majority of practitioners, though certainly not in gastric cases, where morphine gives the relief for which opium often increases the need, owing to the irritant action of some of its constituents.
Which, however, are inter- v, Axial or gastric portion of the radial in position.
Internally the nitrate has been used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, in ulcerative conditions of the intestine and in chronic dysentery.
A similar condition is seen in Pelagia, where the number of gastric pouches is increased to sixteen.
GC, Gastric canal or foramen.