He made researches on volcanic phenomena, especially on the gaseous emanations.
The stomata serve for all gaseous interchange between the plant and the surrounding air.
He denied that gaseous atoms could have parts, although compound gases could.
This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
The organism is largely dependent for its vital processes upon gaseous interchanges.
Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.
Hence the gaseous atoms of hydrogen and oxygen could not have parts.
At low temperatures, on the other hand, they find, using an initial pressure of 'coo mm., that the temperatures on the helium scale are measurably higher than on the hydrogen scale, owing to the more perfectly gaseous condition of helium.
This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.
So long as they are connected together mechanically they have apparently the power of influencing one another in various ways, and of passing liquid or gaseous materials from one to another.
The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.
This system of channels is in communication with the outer atmosphere through numerous small apertures, known as stomata, which are abundant upon the leaves and young twigs, and gaseous interchange between the plant and the air is by their assistance rendered constant and safe.
It may at other times lead to great difficulties in the supply of the gaseous constituents which are used in the manufacture of food.
The dioxide has been known since the earliest times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in some volcanic springs.
In the older type the combustion chamber (of metal or glass) is sunk in the calorimeter proper, tubes being provided for the entrance and exit of the gaseous substances involved in the action.
In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
This may be due in some measure to the small number of gaseous and easily volatile substances then known, to the attention which the study of the organic compounds received, and especially to the energetic investigations of J.
As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.
These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.
Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
This power of varying the area of the apertures by which gases enter the internal reservoirs is not advantageous to the gaseous interchangesindeed it may be directly the reverse.
Baeyers hypothesis was entertained by botanists partly because it explained the gaseous interchanges accompanying photosynthesis.
The materials of each ring would continue to cool and to contract until they passed from the gaseous to the liquid condition.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
Soc., 1907, 91, p. 1862) obtained nitrogen trioxide in the gaseous form by volatilizing the liquid under special conditions.
The best modern determinations of the value of K for gaseous oxygen agree very fairly well with that given by Faraday in 18J3 (Exp. Res.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
Sodium percarbonates of the formulae Na 2 CO 4, Na2C206, Na 2 C05, NaHCO 4 (two isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on the peroxides Na 2 0 2, Na 2 0 3, NaHO 2 (two isomers)in the presence of water at a low temperature (R.Wolffenstein and E.Peltner, Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 275, 280).
By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.
These natural philosophers suggested that equal volumes of all gaseous substances must contain, at the same temperature and pressure, the same number of molecules.
We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
Soc., 18 9 8, 73, p. 35 2) as a colourless liquid by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the presence of sodium carbonate; the resulting solution was extracted with ether and the oxime hydrochloride precipitated by gaseous hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being then dissolved in water, the solution exactly neutralized and distilled.
The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.
At the great Indian eclipse of 1868 he demonstrated the gaseous nature of the red prominences, and devised a method of observing them under ordinary daylight conditions.
Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.
Again, by raising the temperature, a metal in the solid state can be melted and liquefied, and poured into a mould to assume any form desired, which is retained when the metal cools and solidifies again; the gaseous state of a metal is revealed by the spectroscope.
The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state.
One man who understands the use of gaseous fuel can regulate the heat of a thousand or more retorts.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
By passing chloroform vapour over the heated dioxide the tetradiand tri-chlorides are formed, together with the free metal and a gaseous hydride, TiH 4 (Renz, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2 49).
Terrestrial plants have a gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which is necessary for respiration and feeding.
Gaseous compounds, e.g.