He remained one of Elizabeth's most trusted Protestant counsellors, being appointed in 1572 chancellor of the order of the Garter and a secretary of state.
When peace was made, Edward summoned him again as a baron and gave him the Garter and the treasurership of his household.
Thomas Howard, a politic mind, loyal to the powers that be, was released from the Tower of London in 1489, his earldom of Surrey and his Garter restored.
A knight of the Garter, he was in 1621 created earl marshal for life, and revived the jurisdiction belonging to the office.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been betrothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great.
Of the cadet branches of the house, the oldest was that of Powyke and Alcester, which obtained a barony in 1447 and became extinct in 1496; from it sprang the Beauchamps, Lords St Amand from 1448, of whom was Richard, bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the Garter, and who became extinct in 1508, being the last known male heirs of the race.
In this place his tact and temper, his dexterity and discrimination, enabled him to do good service, and he was rewarded with Walpole's friendship, a Garter and the place of lord high steward.
In the following years he spent much time and money in rebuilding Windsor Castle, and instituting the order of the Garter, which he did in order to fulfil a vow that he had taken to restore the Round Table of Arthur.
13), which ensigns the royal arms above the south door of King's College chapel, Cambridge, has the motto of the order of the Garter round the circlet.
1369), was one of the first knights of the order of the Garter, and earned a great reputation as a soldier, specially distinguishing himself at the battle of Poitiers in 1356.
It was rumoured in December 1554 that Cecil would succeed Sir William Petre as secretary, an office which, with his chancellorship of the Garter, he had lost on Mary's accession.
He was knighted on December 1, 1577, and made chancellor of the order of the Garter on April 22, 1578.
He was also made Duque da Victoria by the Portuguese regency, and before the opening of the campaign of 1813, which was to crown his work, he was given both the Garter and the Golden Fleece.
Of England conferred the order of the Garter on Guidubaldo, Castiglione was sent to England with a letter of thanks and with the small picture, now in the Louvre, of "St George and the Dragon," painted by Raphael in 1504, as a present to the English king.
Beltz, Memorials of the Order of the Garter (1841,) p. xxvii.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
4 Anstis, Register of the Order of the Garter, i.
When Segar, garter king of arms, wrote in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, this had been accomplished with such completeness that he does not even mention that there were two ways of creating knights bachelors.
(Ashmole, Order of the Garter, p. 25).
4 Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 678; Ashmole, Order of the Garter, p. 15; Favyn, Thedtre d'Honneur, ii.
- Ashmole, Order of the Garter, pp. 12, 13.
(See the section on " Orders of Knighthood " below.) The United Kingdom has eight orders of knighthood - the Garter, the Thistle, St Patrick, the Bath, the Star of India, St Michael and St George, the Indian Empire and the Royal Victorian Order; and, while the first is undoubtedly the oldest as well as the most illustrious anywhere existing, a fictitious antiquity has been claimed and is even still frequently conceded 8 State Papers, Domestic Series, James the First, lxvii.
(i.) THE Garter; (ii.) THE Collar And George; (iii.) THE Lesser George And Ribbon; (1V.) Star.
It is, however, certain that the " most noble " Order of the Garter at least was instituted in the middle of the 14th century, when English chivalry was outwardly brightest and the court most magnificent.
2 Another legend is that contained in the preface to theRegister or Black Book of the order, compiled in the reign of Henry VIII., by what authority supported is unknown, that Richard I., while his forces were employed against Cyprus and Acre, had been inspired through the instrumentality of St George with renewed courage and the means of animating his fatigued soldiers by the device of tying about the legs of a chosen number of knights a leathern thong or garter, to the end that being thereby reminded of the honour of their enterprise they might be encouraged to redoubled efforts for victory.
When he fixed on the garter as the emblem of the order, and it was stated so to have been by Taylor, master of the rolls, in his address to Francis I.
Of France on his investiture in 1527.3 According to Ashmole the true account of the matter is that " King Edward having given forth his own garter as the signal for a battle which sped fortunately (which with Du Chesne we conceive to be that of Crecy), the victory, we say, being happily gained, he thence took occasion to institute this order, and gave the garter (assumed by him for the symbol of unity and society) preeminence among the ensigns of it.
Beltz, Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (1841), P. 385 2 Heylyn, Cosmographie and History of the Whole World, bk.
Nothing," he adds, " is more likely than that in a crowded assembly a lady should accidentally have dropped her garter; that the circumstance should have caused a smile in the bystanders; and that on its being taken up by Edward he should have reproved the levity of his courtiers by so happy and chivalrous an exclamation, placing the garter at the same time on his own knee, as ` Dishonoured be he who thinks ill of it.'
See also Ashmole's Order of the Garter, p. 284.
(Order of the Garter, p. 43; Nicolas, British Orders of Knighthood, i.
Here belong, inter alia, the well-known orders of the Garter (England), Golden Fleece (Austria and Spain), Annunziata (Italy), Black Eagle (Prussia), St Andrew (Russia), Elephant (Denmark) and Seraphim (Sweden).
The history and constitution of the " most noble " Order of the Garter has been treated above.
The prelate has always been the bishop of Winchester; the chancellor was formerly the bishop of Salisbury, but is now the bishop of Oxford; the registrarship and the deanery of Windsor have been united since the reign of Charles I.; the king of arms, whose duties were in the beginning discharged by Windsor herald, is Garter Principal King of Arms; and the usher is the gentleman usher of the Black Rod.
The ribbon is garter blue and crimson and is worn round the neck.
On the 24th of April 1540 he was made a knight of the Garter, and subsequently managed the attainder of Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, and the dissolution of Henry's marriage with Anne of Cleves.
Abd-ul-Aziz visited Europe in 1867, being the first Ottoman sultan to do so, and was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria.
As a mark of the regent's regard Lord Moira received the order of the Garter in 1812, and in the same year was appointed governor-general of Bengal and commander-in-chief of the forces in India.
During 1663 he was made duke of Orkney, duke of Monmouth and knight of the Garter, and received honorary degrees at both universities; and on his marriage he and his wife were created duke and duchess of Buccleuch, and he took the surname of Scott.
In October the Garter was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria.
George's Chapel, Windsor, are the stalls of the Knights of the Garter, in Henry VII.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey are those of the Knights of the Bath, adorned with the stall plates emblazoned with the arms of the knight occupying the stall, above which is suspended his banner.
The promised Garter was withheld from Marlborough, and the incensed "Mrs Morley" in her letters to "Mrs Freeman" styled the king "Caliban" or the "Dutch Monster."
She obtained a grant of 700,000 a year, and hastened to bestow a pension of X100,000 on her husband, whom she created generalissimo of her forces and lord high admiral, while Marlborough obtained the Garter, with the captain-generalship and other prizes, including a dukedom, and the duchess was made mistress of the robes with the control of the privy purse.
1705, and in 1706 had bestowed the Garter on the electoral prince and created him duke of Cambridge; while the Regency Act provided for the declaration of the legal heir to the crown by the council immediately on the queen's death, and a further enactment naturalized the electress and her issue.
REGINALD POLE (1500-1558), English cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury, born at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, was the third son of Sir Richard Pole, Knight of the Garter, and Margaret, countess of Salisbury, a daughter of George, duke of Clarence, and therefore niece of Edward IV.