After a brief embassy to the emperor in the spring of 1538, Bonner superseded Gardiner at Paris, and began his mission by sending Cromwell a long list of accusations against his predecessor (ib.
Both he and Gardiner had in fact sought fresh licences to exercise their ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the young king; and, if he was supreme enough to confer jurisdiction, he was supreme enough to issue the injunctions and order the visitation to which Bonner objected.
Gardiner (Cromwell, p. 315), that "what makes Cromwell's biography so interesting in his perpetual effort to walk in the paths of legality - an effort always frustrated by the necessities of the situation.
These crude ideas of Cromwell's character were extinguished by Macaulay's irresistible logic, by the publication of Cromwell's letters by Carlyle in 1845, which showed Cromwell clearly to be "not a man of falsehoods, but a man of truth"; and by Gardiner, whom, however, it is somewhat difficult to follow when he represents Cromwell as "a typical Englishman."
The king (Henry VIII.) happened at the time to be visiting in the immediate neighbourhood, and two of his chief counsellors, Gardiner, secretary of state, afterwards bishop of Winchester, and Edward Fox, the lord high almoner, afterwards bishop of Hereford, were lodged at Cressy's house.
His share in the divorce of Anne of Cleves was less prominent than that of Gardiner, though he did preside over the Convocation in which nearly all the dignitaries of the church signified their approval of that measure.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
Gardiner calls the scheme "a permanent organization for making war against the king."
Apart from their dependence in various ways upon neighboring cells, the protoplasts of all plants are probably connected together by fine strands of protoplasm which pass through the cell-wall (Tangl, Russow, Gardiner, Kienitz-Gerloff and others) ___________
Xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
141, 18 9, 3 1 3, 350; Il Successo de la Morte de la Regina de Inghilterra (1536); The Maner of the Tryumphe of Caleys and Bullen, and the Noble Tryumphaunt Coronacyon of Queen Anne (1533, rep. 1884); State Papers Henry VIII.; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., by Brewer and Gardiner, esp. the prefaces; Cal.
He got into some trouble with the chancellor, Gardiner, over a ribald play, "Pammachius," performed by the students, deriding the old ecclesiastical system, though Bonner wrote to Parker of the assured affection he bore him.
Gardiner on English history, were given in Whitechapel.
Gardiner, who publishes with them the tombs of Amenemhet and Antefoker, under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society.
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
P. 250, ff.; (52) Gautier Musee Egyptien, 1915; Gardiner, Journ.
Gardiner, "The Indian Ocean," Geo.
The settlers had been joined in the year named (1835) by Captain Gardiner, a naval officer, whose chief object was the evangelization of the natives.
In 1837 Gardiner was given authority by the British government to exercise jurisdiction over the traders.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
Gardiner, Narrative of a Journey to the Zoolu Country (1836); N.
Gardiner for the Camden Society (1877); Hist.
Gardiner, "Formation of the Maldives," in Geographical Journ.
Mr Gardiner regarded these banks as plateaus rising to different elevations beneath the surface of the sea from a main plateau rising steeply from the great depths of the Indian Ocean.
Gardiner and Cooper they are classed in four ethnological divisions.
Stanley Gardiner and C. Forster Cooper carried out an expedition to the Maldives and Laccadives, for the important results of which see The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, ed.
For other accounts see Carlyle, Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, letter cxl.; Hoenig, Cromwell; Baldock, Cromwell as a Soldier; and Gardiner, Hist.
In judicial impartiality Parkman may be compared with Gardiner, and for accuracy of learning with Stubbs.
Gardiner for the Navy Record Society (1899).
STEPHEN GARDINER (c. 14931 555), English bishop and lord chancellor, was a native of Bury St Edmunds.
Among the imposing train who went with the cardinal - including, as it did, several noblemen and privy councillors - Gardiner alone seems to have been acquainted with the real heart of the matter which made this embassy a thing of such peculiar moment.
In the course of his progress through France he received orders from Henry to send back his secretary Gardiner, or, as he was called at court, Master Stevens, for fresh instructions; to which he was obliged to reply that he positively could not spare him as he was the only instrument he had in advancing the king's "secret matter."
Next year Gardiner, still in the service of Wolsey, was sent by him to Italy along with Edward Fox, provost of King's College, Cambridge, to promote the same business with the pope.
Gardiner speaks of the final shape of Charles's measure as " a wise and beneficent reform "; and he did aim at recovering the "teinds" or tithes, and securing something like a satisfactory sustenance for ministers.
The new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary party under Gardiner and Norfolk; but there was no idea of returning to the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.
Gardiner had almost been sent to the Tower, and Norfolk and Surrey were condemned to death, while Cranmer asserted that it was Henry's intention to convert the mass into a communion service.
Gardiner, The Inscription of Mes (from Sethes Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Agyptens, iv.); J.
(London, I887); Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, Modern Egypt and Thebes (2 vols., London, 1843); Lady Duff Gordon, Letters from Egypt, complete edition (London, 1902), an invaluable account of social conditions in the period 1862-1869; A.
Gardiner, History of England (London, 1883-1884); G.
His principal works are, The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul (1745), which best illustrates his religious genius, and has been widely translated; The Family Expositor (6 vols., 1739-1756), Life of Colonel Gardiner (1747); and a Course of Lectures on Pneumatology, Ethics and Divinity (1763).