The market-gardeners of Paris and its vicinity have a high reputation for skill in the forcing of early vegetables under glass.
The minute insects included in it, which haunt blossoms and leaves, are fairly well known to gardeners by the name Thrips, a generic term used by Linnaeus for the four species of the group which he had examined and relegated to the order Hemiptera.
AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.
Pflanzenkrankheiten, the Gardeners Chronicle, &c. Etiolation, &c.Pfeffer, Physiology of Plants, and other works on physiology.
He is the patron of Brie, and gardeners invoke him as their protector.
Among the early writings, besides the book of Curtis, there may also be mentioned a still useful little publication by Pohl and Kollar, entitled Insects Injurious to Gardeners, Foresters and Farmers, published in 1837, and Taschenberg's Praktische Insecktenkunde.
Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.
Notwithstanding the losses that the city had sustained, `Amr was able to write to his master, the caliph Omar, that he had taken a city containing "4000 palaces, 4000 baths, 12,000 dealers in fresh oil, 12,000 gardeners, 40,000 Jews who pay tribute, 400 theatres or places of amusement."
As to the nectarine, of its origin as a variation from the peach there is abundant evidence, as has already been mentioned; it is only requisite to add the very important fact that the seeds of the nectarine, even when that nectarine has been produced by bud-variation from a peach, will generally produce nectarines, or, as gardeners say, "come true."
This proved one of the most momentous steps taken in the history of South Africa, for the Indian population rapidly increased, the " free " Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, traders, and in time serious competitors with the whites.
Perhaps the explanation of the fact that some of the cultivated varieties are, as gardeners say, "bad setters," - i.e.
At night it crawls about in search of food, which consists to a small extent of dead animal or vegetable matter, but principally, as gardeners are aware, of the petals and other parts of flowers of growing shoots and soft ripe fruit.
There is another remarkable feature of the Japanese gardeners art.
Adjoining the above-named buildings is the Hibiya Park, modelled on the European style, while retaining the special features of the Japanese gardeners' art.
Speciosum (well known to most gardeners as lancifolium), the true typical form and the red-spotted and white varieties are grand plants for late summer blooming in the conservatory.
In that year, however, a League for Municipal Improvements was formed; in February 1902 a loan of $1,000,000 for municipal improvements was voted, landscape gardeners and sewage engineers were consulted, and a nonpartisan mayor was elected, under whom great advances were made in street cleaning and street paving, a new filtration plant was completed, the river front was beautified and protected from flood, sewage was diverted from Paxton Creek, and the development of an extensive park system was undertaken.
Fragilis, with some half-score varieties, is almost exclusively used by market gardeners for bunching greens, turnips and other produce.
By gardeners the bullfinch has long been regarded as a deadly enemy, from its undoubted destruction of the buds of fruit-trees in spring-time, though whether the destruction is really so much of a detriment is by no means so undoubted.
Artificial heat applied to the roots, called by gardeners " bottom-heat," is supplied by fermenting materials such as stable manure, leaves, &c., or by hot-water pipes.
In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting.
Among gardeners the general opinion is against the possibility of graft-hybridization.
The reproductive process of which the formation of the flower is the first stage being an exhaustive one, it is necessary that the plant, as gardeners say, should get " established " before it flowers.
The defects which cause gardeners to speak of certain vines as " shy setters," and of certain strawberries as " blind," may be due either to unsuitable conditions of external temperature, or to the non-accomplishment, from some cause or other, of cross-fertilization.
Many gardeners are still afraid to disturb an unsuitable subsoil, but experienced growers have proved that by bringing it up to the surface and placing plenty of manure in the bottoms of the various trenches, the very best results are attained in the course of a season or so.
Gardeners often dispense with the pot, using sphagnum moss and leaf-mould only when propagating indiarubber plants, perpetual carnations, dracaenas, &c.
Watson, The Gardeners' Assistant; C. H.
Dewar, The Gardeners' Dictionary; J.
Excellent agriculturists and gardeners, very laborious, and having a good reputation for honesty, they live on the best terms with their Russian peasant neighbours.
They also are agriculturists and gardeners; while some 12,000 Kundrovsk Tatars still continue the nomadic life of their ancestors.
They are celebrated for their excellence as gardeners, agriculturists, cattle-tenders and artisans.
In cultivation the potato varies very greatly not only as to the season of its growth but also as to productiveness, the vigour and luxuriance of its foliage, the presence or relative absence of hairs, the form of the leaves, the size and colour of the flowers, &c. The tubers vary greatly in size, form and colour; gardeners divide them into rounded forms and long forms or "kidneys," and there are of course varieties intermediate in form.
The mode of cultivation adopted by the London market gardeners is thus in substance explained by Cuthill: A long trench, 5 ft.
When Eurooeal gardeners were employed in Persia, that they were rationally cultivated.
The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and Shakespeare was, as in Italy, Dianthus Caryophyllus; that of later writers and of gardeners, Matthiola.