Three fine rivers flow through the district - the Ganges, Kusi and Ghagri.
The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Hugli, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 m.
The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
The Ganges runs a course of 60 m.
In artistic representations, Brahma usually appears as a bearded man of red colour with four heads crowned with a pointed, tiara-like head-dress, and four hands holding his sceptre, or a sacrificial spoon, a bundle of leaves representing the Veda, a bottle of water of the Ganges, and a string of beads or his bow Parivita.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
Among them are the Meghna, the Ganges or Padma, the Lakshmia, a branch of the Brahmaputra, the Jamuna, or main stream of the Brahmaputra, the Mendi-Khali, a large branch of the Meghna, the Dhaleswari, an offshoot of the Jamuna, the Ghazi-khali and the Buriganga.
The Ganges here forms a fine sweep of about 4 m.
It is the junction between the Oudh & Rohilkhand and East Indian railways, the Ganges being crossed by a steel girder bridge of seven spans, each 350 ft.
Ahalim, ahaloth), produced by the Aloexylon Agallochum (Loureiro), a native of Cochin-China, and Aquilaria Agallocha (Roxburgh), a native of India beyond the Ganges; balm (Heb.
The principal source is Phoenix sylvestris, which is cultivated in a portion of the Ganges valley to the north of Calcutta.
The country north of the Ganges is level, but beautifully diversified with trees and verdure.
The tract south of the Ganges is traversed by the loop-line of the East Indian railway, and there is also a railway across the northern tract.
The Division Of Bhagalpur stretches across the Ganges from the Nepal frontier to the hills of Chota Nagpur.
Shortly after passing the holy city of Benares the Ganges enters Behar, and after receiving an important tributary, the Sone from the south, passes Patna, and obtains another accession to its volume from the Gandak, which rises in Nepal.
The most westerly is the Hugli, which receives the waters of a number of distributary channels that start from the parent Ganges above Murshidabad.
According to the latest calculations, the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into the sea, 20 m.; breadth of channel in dry season, 14 to 21 m.; depth in dry season, 30 ft.;.
The Ganges is crossed by six railway bridges on its course as far as Benares; and another, at Sara in Eastern Bengal, has been sanctioned.
The Ganges canal was opened by Lord Dalhousie in 1854, and irrigates 978,000 acres.
The Lower Ganges canal, an extension of the original canal, has been in operation since 1878 and irrigates 830,000 acres.
The two canals, together with the eastern Jumna, command the greater portion of the Doab lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, above Allahabad.
DINAPUR, a town and military station of British India, in the Patna district of Bengal, on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m.
Colonel Goddard with a Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from the valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost without a blow the conquest of Gujarat.
In the latter years of his reign Harsha's sway over the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda was undisputed.
It was a bitter mortification to Alexander, before whose imagination new vistas had just opened out eastwards, where there beckoned the unknown world of the Ganges and its splendid kings.
The city is situated on the south bank of the Ganges, 40 m.
About three-quarters of a mile away, on the banks of the river Ganges, is the Massacre Ghat.
Authentic information respecting the great valley of the Ganges was supplied by Megasthenes, an ambassador sent by Seleucus, who reached the remote city of Patali-putra, the modern Patna.
On the south the coast-line is far more irregular, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the China Sea reaching about to the northern tropic at the mouths of the Indus, of the Ganges and of the Canton river; while the great peninsulas of Arabia, Hindostan and Cambodia descend to about 10° N., and the Malay peninsula extends within a degree and a half of the equator.
Are registered, and the quantity is here nowhere less than 75 or 80 in., which is about the average of the eastern part of the delta of the Ganges, Calcutta standing at about 64 in.
The cedar or deodar is hardly indigenous east of the sources of the Ganges, and at about the same point the forms of the west begin to be more abundant, increasing in number as we advance towards Afghanistan.
Of the marine orders of Sirenia and Cetacea the Dugong, Halicore, is exclusively found in the Indian Ocean; and a dolphin, Platanista, peculiar to the Ganges, ascends that river to a great distance from the sea.
The life of the ancient Aryans, as portrayed in their sacred songs, the Rig Veda, was quasi-nomadic and in many ways democratic, but by the 6th century B.C. settled states had been formed in the Ganges valley.
Bonnal de Ganges, La Chute d'une republique (Venise) (Paris, 1885); E.
The principal rivers are the Ganges, Karamnasa, Gumti and Barna.
Among the travellers of whose information he was thus able to avail himself were Pytheas of Massilia, Patroclus, who had visited the Caspian (285-282 B.C.), Megasthenes, who visited Palibothra on the Ganges, as ambassador of Seleucus Nicator (302-291 B.C.), Timosthenus of Rhodes, the commander of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-246 B.C.) who wrote a treatise " On harbours," and Philo, who visited Meroe on the upper Nile.
His map formed a parallelogram measuring 75,800 stadia from Usisama (Ushant island) or Sacrum Promontorium in the west to the mouth of the Ganges and the land of the Coniaci (Comorin) in the east, and 46,000 stadia from Thule in the north to the supposed southern limit of Libya.
At Tadum the river is about one half as wide again as the Ganges at Hardwar in December, i.e.
Per second, or seven times that of the Ganges at Hardwar.
The Brahmaputra, therefore, exceeds the Ganges in length by about 400 m.
Bankura forms a connecting link between the delta of the Ganges on the E.
It receives the drainage of the northern slopes of the Satpuras, but not that of the Vindhyan tableland, the streams from which flow into the Ganges and Jumna.
In sanctity the Nerbudda ranks only second to the Ganges among the rivers of India, and along its whole course are special places of pilgrimage.
C. Cunningham's experiments on the Ganges canal.
BHAGALPUR, a city of British India, in the Behar province of Bengal, which gives its name to a district and to a division; situated on the right bank of the Ganges, 265 m.
The Kusi rises in the Himalayas and falls into the Ganges near Colgong within Bhagalpur.
It is nearly a level plain, but with a slight elevation in the centre, between the two great rivers the Ganges and Jumna.
The district is traversed by several railways and also by the Ganges canal, which is navigable.
GANGES (GANGA), a great river of northern India, formed by the drainage of the southern ranges of the Himalayas.
Thus far the Ganges has been little more than a series of broad shoals, long deep pools and rapids, except, of course, during the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy season.
But the tongue of land at Allahabad, where the Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true Prayag, the place of pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of devout Hindus repair to wash away their sins in the sacred river.
The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr, Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the N.
The UPPER GANGES CANAL and the LOWER GANGES CANAL are the two principal systems of perennial irrigation in the United Provinces.
It lies among the mountains of Kumaon, between the upper waters of the Ganges and the Gogra, here called the Kali.
Another stimulus came from the biologists, Pacific. On the 1st of November 1876 a cyclone acting in this who began to realize the importance of a more detailed investigaway submerged a great area of the level plain of the Ganges tion of the life conditions of organisms at great depths in the delta to a depth of 46 ft.; here the influence of the difference sea.
The first hint to reach Europe concerning the existence of habitable lands to the eastward of the Ganges is to be found in the writings of Pomponius Mela
Bonnal de Ganges, La Chute dune rpublique tVenise] (Paris, 1885); D.
The district is watered by four branches of the Ganges canal, and traversed by two lines of railway.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
As early as the 3rd century B.C. Megasthenes makes mention of spices brought to the shores of the Ganges from " the southern parts of India," and the trade in question was probably one of the most ancient in the world.