At the time that "the scramble for Africa" began, the narrow strip of coast over which the king of Togo ruled was the sole district between the Gambia and the Niger to which Great Britain, France or some other civilized power had not a claim.
Five years later he accepted an offer from the government to command an expedition into the interior of Africa, the plan being to cross from the Gambia to the Niger and descend the latter river to the sea.
The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.
Of the Gambia Colony there is a map by Major E.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
Bondu lies between the Faleme river and the upper course of the Gambia, that is between 13° and 15° N., and 12° and 13° W.
In October 1663, therefore, a squadron was sent out under command of Sir Robert Holmes to attack the Dutch in Gambia and America.
De Ruyter re-established the Dutch posts in Gambia, and, though he failed to retake New Amsterdam, did much injury to English trade before he returned to Holland.
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
The Gambia, especially in its lower course, is very serpentine, and although the distance from the source to the mouth of the river is little more than 300 m.
From the Barraconda rapids to the Atlantic the Gambia has a course of about 350 m.
The Gambia is in flood from November to June, when the Barraconda rapids are navigable by small boats.
Politically the Gambia is divided between Great Britain and France - Britain possessing both banks of the river up to, but not including, Yarbatenda.
The Gambia was one of the rivers passed by Hanno the Carthaginian in his famous voyage along the west coast of Africa.
Afterwards the Gambia became a starting-place for explorers of the interior, among them Mungo Park, who began both his journeys (1795 and 1805) from this river.
It was not until 1818 that the sources of the Gambia were reached, the discoverybeing made by a Frenchman, Gaspard Mollien,who had travelled by way of the Senegal and Bondu.
MacDonnell, then governor of the Gambia colony, and in 1881 Dr V.
To the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia ..., edited by T.
The species that has the widest range, and that by far, is the common Ring-necked Parakeet, Palaeornis torquatus, a well-known cage-bird which is found from the mouth of the Gambia across Africa to the coast of the Red Sea, as well as throughout the whole of India, Ceylon and Burmah to Tenasserim.
The palm-oil tree is indigenous and abundant from the river Gambia to the Congo.
At length the consecutive efforts of the navigators employed by Prince Henry of Portugal - Gil Eannes, Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, Alvaro Fernandez, Cadamosto, Usodimare and Diego Gomez - made known the coast as far as the Gambia, and by the end of the 15th century the whole region was familiar to Europeans.
- Missions:: Senegambia, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Lower Niger, Gaboon, French Congo, Lower Congo, Mayotte, Nossibe and Comoro Islands.
Gambia River >>
Besides the Niger, Gambia and Senegal, all separately noticed, a large number of streams running direct to the Atlantic rise in Futa Jallon.
At that time the British, from their bases at the Gambia and Sierra Leone, were devoting considerable attention to these Rivieres du Sud (i.e.
During 1876-1880 new treaties were concluded with the chief tribes, and in 1881 the almany (or emir) of Futa Jallon placed his country under French protection, the French thus effectually preventing the junction, behind the coast lands, of the British colonies of the Gambia and Sierra Leone.
That the home of this species is West Africa from the Gambia 2 to the Gaboon is certain, but its range in the interior is quite unknown.
In 1866 Freetown was made the capital of the new general government set up for the British settlements on the West Coast of Africa (comprising Sierra Leone, Gambia, the Gold Coast and Lagos, each of which was to have a legislative council).
In 1874 the Gold Coast and Lagos were detached from Sierra Leone, and the Gambia in 1888.
Among the chief British protectorates are: The African groups, consisting of the western group - Gambia;; Sierra Leone; Ashanti (northern territory); Northern Nigeria; Southern Nigeria (with which is amalgamated Lagos).
After 1446 our most voluminous authority, Azurara, records but little; his narrative ceases altogether in 1448; one of the latest expeditions noticed by him is that of a foreigner in the prince's service, "Vallarte the Dane," which ended in utter destruction near the Gambia, after passing Cape Verde in 1448.
Of these the former, in his two voyages of 1455 and 1456, explored part of the courses of the Senegal and the Gambia, discovered the Cape Verde Islands (1456), named and mapped more carefully than before a considerable section of the African littoral beyond Cape Verde, and gave much new information on the trade-routes of north-west Africa and on the native races; while Gomez, in his first important venture (after 1448 and before 1458), though not accomplishing the full Indian purpose of his voyage (he took a native interpreter with him for use "in the event of reaching India"), explored and observed in the Gambia valley and along the adjacent coasts with fully as much care and profit.
GAMBIA, the most northerly of the British West African dependencies.
Within the protectorate are various petty kingdoms, such as Barra, to the north of the Gambia, and Kommbo, to the south.
The colony, as its name implies, derives its character and value from the river Gambia (q.v.), which is navigable throughout and beyond the limits of the colony, while large ocean-going ships can always cross the bar at its mouth and enter the port of Bathurst.
The climate during the dry season (November - June) is the best on the British West African coast, and the Gambia is then considered fairly healthy.
Administration, Revenue, eec. - The Gambia is administered by a governor, assisted by an executive and a legislative council.
Of the early history of the Gambia district there is scant mention.
At what period the stone circles and pillars (apparently of a "Druidical" character), whose ruins are found at several places along the upper Gambia, were erected is not known.
The Portuguese visited the Gambia in the 15th century, and in the beginning of the 16th century were trading in the lower river.
Granted a charter to another company named "The Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa," and formed at the instigation of Sir Robert Rich, afterwards earl of Warwick, for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast.
This company sought to open up trade with Timbuktu, then believed to be a great mart for gold, which reached the lower Gambia in considerable quantities.
With this object George Thompson (a merchant who had traded with Barbary) was sent out in the "Catherine," and ascended the Gambia in his ship to Kassan, a Portuguese trading town, thence continuing his journey in small boats.
The French now became rivals for the trade of the Gambia, but the treaty of Versailles in 1783 assigned the trade in the river to Britain, reserving, however, Albreda for French trade, while it assigned the Senegal to France, with the reservation of the right of the British to trade at Portendic for gum.
This arrangement remained in force till 1857, when an exchange of possessions was effected and the lower Gambia became a purely British river.
The Gambia witnessed many administrative changes.
It so remained until 1843, when the Gambia was made an independent colony, its first governor being Henry Frowd Seagram.
Afterwards (1866) the Gambia became a portion of the officially styled "West African Settlements."
"Definite proposals were at that time formulated by which the Gambia was to be exchanged for all posts by France between the Rio Pongas (Pongo river, French Guinea) and the Gabun.
This would have been a comprehensive and intelligible arrangement, but so strong a feeling in opposition to any cession of British territory was manifested in parliament, and by various mercantile bodies, that the government of the day was unable to press the scheme."' Nothing was done, however, to secure for the Gambia a suitable hinterland, and in 1877 the 4th earl of Carnarvon (then colonial secretary) warned British traders that they proceeded beyond McCarthy's Isle at their own risk.
From the centre of the town of Yarbatenda; which town is situated at the limit of navigability of the Gambia from the sea.
Iii., West Africa (2nd ed., Oxford, 1900) (this book contains valuable bibliographical notes); and The Gambia Colony and Protectorate, an official handbook (with map and considerable historical information), by F.
Of the remaining rivers of the Atlantic basin the Orange, in the extreme south, brings the drainage from the Drakensberg on the opposite side of the continent, while the Kunene, Kwanza, Ogowe and Sanaga drain the west coast highlands of the southern limb; the Volta, Komoe, Bandama, Gambia and Senegal the highlands of the western limb.
Park landed at the Gambia, and struck the Niger near Segu (a town some distance above Sansandig) on the 10th of July 1796, where he beheld it "glittering in the morning sun as broad as the Thames at Westminster and flowing slowly to.
He started as, before from the Gambia, reached the Niger, sailed down the river past Timbuktu, and on the eve of the successful accomplishment of his undertaking lost his life during an attack on his boat by the natives at Bussa (Nov.
Is imported from the river Gambia, and from Senegal and Bathurst.
Above the falls the Gambia is joined by two considerable affluents, the Nieriko from the north and the Kuluntu or Grey river from the south.