I know it still galls you that he was willing to help pay for your college education, but not Katie's.
"You know," she continued as she scooped grain into a stanchion, "it really galls me that Josh is always encouraging Lori with her work, but he never misses an opportunity to belittle mine.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
Irritation and hypertrophy of cells are common signs of the presence of parasites, as ovinced by the numerous malformations, galls, witches-brooms, &c., on diseased plants.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Excrescences may be divided into those occurring on herbaceous tissues, of which Galls are well-known examples, and those found on the woody stem, branches, &c., and themselves eventually woody, of which Burrs of various kinds afford common illustrations.
Cecidia or galls arise by the hypertrophy of the subepidermal cells of a leaf, cortex, &c., which has been pierced by theovipositor of an insect, and in which the egg is deposited.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.
Other flies of this group have the inquiline habit, laying their eggs in the galls of other species, while others again pierce the cuticle of maggots or aphids, in whose bodies their larvae live as parasites.
Within this gall the stock-mother lives and surrounds herself with numerous parthenogenetically produced eggs - sometimes as many as two hundred in a single gall; these eggs give birth after six or eight days to a numerous progeny (gallicola), some of which form new galls and multiply in the leaves, whilst others descend to the roots and become the root-dwelling forms already described.
The galls and the gallproducing form are much commoner in America than in the Old World.
In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of living mammals and birds, and are produced by Acaridea, and by dipterous insects of the genus Oestrus.
What are commonly known as galls are vegetable excrescences, and, according to the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise " all abnormal vegetable productions developed on plants by the action of animals, noreparticularly by insects, whatever may be their form, bulk or situation."
The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants.
Thus the characteristics of the currant-gall of Spathegaster baccarum, L., which occurs alike on the leaves and on the flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to the act of oviposition, and not to the functions of the parts producing it; the bright red galls of the saw-fly Nematus gallicola are found on four different species of willow, Salix fragilis, S.
Cinerea; 1 and the galls of a Cynipid, Biorhiza aptera, usually developed on the rootlets of the oak, have been procured also from the deodar.
The moss-like covering of the "bedeguars" of the wild rose, the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodites rosae, represents leaves which have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma between their fibro-vascular bundles; and the " artichoke-galls " or " oak-strobile," produced by Aphilothrix L., which insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, with a peduncular, oviform, inner ga11.4 E.
Newman held the view that many oak-galls are pseudobalani or false acorns: " to produce an acorn has been the intention of the oak, but the gall-fly has frustrated the attempt."
5 Galls vary remarkably in size and shape according to the species of their makers.
The polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, 6 which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length.
Many galls are brightly coloured, as, for instance, the oak-leaf hairy galls of Spathegaster tricolor, which are of a crimson hue, more or less diffused according to exposure to light.
The variety of forms of galls is very great.
The " knoppern " galls of Cynips polycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge.
Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."
7 The characters of galls are constant, and as a rule exceedingly diagnostic, even when, as in the case of ten different gall-gnats of an American willow, Salix humilis, it is difficult or impossible to tell the fullgrown insects that produce them from one another.
In degree of complexity of internal structure galls differ considerably.
The largest class are the unilocular, or simple, external galls, divided by Lacaze-Duthiers into those with and those without a superficial protective layer or rind, and composed of hard, or spongy, or cellular tissue.
The parenchyma proper; vessels which, without forming a complete investment, underlie the parenchyma; a hard protective layer; and lastly, within that, an alimentary central mass inhabited by the growing larva.8 Galls are formed by insects of several orders.
Among the commoner of the galls of the Cynipidae are the " oak-apple " or " oak-sponge " of Andricus terminalis, Fab.; the " currant " or " berry galls " of Spathegaster baccarum, L., above mentioned; and the " oak-spangles " of Neuroterus lenticularis, 9 Oliv., generally reputed to be fungoid growths, until the discovery of their true nature by Frederick Smith, 10 and the succulent " cherry-galls " of Dryophanta scutellaris, Oliv.
(1856) p. 290; " English Ink-Galls," Pharm.
Oak-galls are mentioned by Theophrastus, Dioscorides (i.
Hordei, the " joint-worm " of the United States, which produces galls on the stalks of wheat;4 also various members of the family Tenthredinidae, or saw-flies.
The larvae of the latter usually vacate their galls, to spin their cocoons in the earth, or, as in the case of Athalia abdominalis, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the gall-bearing plant.
Some of them build cocoons within their galls, others descend to the ground or become pupae.
The true willow-galls are the work either of these or of saw-flies.
Their galls are to be met with on a great variety of plants of widely distinct genera, e.g.
A strong north-west wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the farmer."8 Other gall-making dipterous flies are members of the family Trypetidae, which disfigure the seed-heads of plants, and of the family Mycetophilidae, such as the species Sciara tilicola, 9 Low, the cause of the oblong or rounded green and red galls of the young shoots and leaves of the lime.
Galls are formed also by hemipterous and homopterous insects of the families Tingidae, Psyllidae, Coccidae and Aphidae.
10 The galls of examples of the last family are common objects on lime-leaves, and on the petioles of the poplar.
The Chinese galls of commerce (Woo-pei-tsze) are stated to be produced by Aphis Chinensis, Bell, on Rhus semialata, Murr.