Submarine activity in the open Mediterranean and Aegean had no small influence in determining the final abandonment of the Gallipoli enterprise and in preventing its resumption in the later stages of the war.
After the city of Adrianople (pop. 1905, about 80,000), which is the capital, the principal towns are Rodosto (35,000), [[Gallipoli (disambiguation)|Gallipoli (25,000), Kirk-Kilisseh (Kirk-Kilisse)|Kirk-Kilisseh]] (16,000), Xanthi (14,000), Chorlu (11,500), Demotica (10,000), Enos (8000), Gumuljina (8000) and Dedeagatch (3000).
The following are the chief islands: - Thasos, in the extreme north, off the Macedonian coast; Samothrace, fronting the Gulf of Saros; Imbros and Lemnos, in prolongation of the peninsula of Gallipoli (Thracian Chersonese); Euboea, the largest of all, lying close along the east coast of Greece; the Northern Sporades, including Sciathos, Scopelos and Halonesos, running out from the southern extremity of the Thessalian coast, and Scyros, with its satellites, north-east of Euboea; Lesbos and Chios; Samos and Nikaria; Cos, with Calymnos to the north; all off Asia Minor, with the many other islands of the Sporades; and, finally, the great group of the Cyclades, of which the largest are Andros and Tenos, Naxos and Paros.
In 1901, 1985 imperial tuns of oil were shipped from Gallipoli for abroadtwo-thirds to the United Kingdom, one-third to Russiaand 666 to Italian ports; while in 1904 the figures were reversed, 1633 tuns going to Italian ports, and only 945 tuns to foreign ports.
LAMPSACUS, an ancient Greek colony in Mysia, Asia Minor, known as Pityusa or Pityussa before its colonization by Ionian Greeks from Phocaea and Miletus, was situated on the Hellespont, opposite Callipolis (Gallipoli) in Thrace.
In 1355 Suleiman crossed over from Aidinjik and captured the fortress of Gallipoli, which was at once converted into a Turkish stronghold; from this base Bulair, Malgara, Ipsala and Rodosto were added to the Turkish possessions.
Amid the cares of state he found time for works of public utility and for the support of literature and art; he is credited with having sent the first embassy to a Christian power, after the Venetian expedition to Gallipoli in 1416, and the Ottoman navy is first heard of in his reign.
Of the Gallipoli peninsula), on Feb.
The fact that along the whole of its course this remarkable waterway is only separated from the Aegean by the attenuated Gallipoli Peninsula, did, on the other hand, suggest that the most promising method of attack upon the maritime defile from without would be to occupy that significant tongue of land.
Long-range fire on the forts directed from outside the Straits over the Gallipoli Peninsula was also tried, but the results proved disappointing.
Reconnaissance had brought to light the extent to which the Turks were making preparations to repel attempted landings, both on the Gallipoli Peninsula, and on the Asiatic coast adjacent to the mouth of the Straits; and everything pointed to the expeditionary force having to start work by fighting its way ashore.
Still, their presence on the Asiatic side of the Straits was for the time being indirectly helpful to their British comrades who were struggling for a grip on the extremity of the Gallipoli Peninsula.
Although his adversaries had fought their way ashore in two sections of the Gallipoli Peninsula - and he had had to give up his first idea of driving them back to their ships - Liman von Sanders had no grounds for despondency when May opened.
Liman von Sanders was joined by reinforcements from other parts of the Empire early in the month, and the number of Turkish divisions in the peninsula swelled; but, aware that additional British troops were arriving, he felt obliged to leave forces on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles in case of a hostile landing on the coast to the S., and of the divisions on the peninsula he kept two about Gallipoli and Bulair.
Almost the narrowest portion of the Gallipoli Peninsula fell to the ground.
As a matter of fact, the Suvla troops had afforded the Anzac columns no assistance at all beyond occupying the attention of one of the two Turkish divisions which Liman von Sanders set in motion south-westwards from about Gallipoli as soon as he had satisfied himself as to where danger lay, and the doings of this newly landed force had now to be recorded.
When Liman von Sanders (who had fixed his headquarters near Gallipoli) learned during the night of the 6th-7th that the Allies were landing in strong force about Suvla, and were also attacking Sari Bair from Anzac, and after he had satisfied himself that certain threats on the part of his opponents at other points might be regarded as mere feints, he ordered the two Turkish divisions under his immediate orders to proceed towards Suvla with all speed.
The campaign by which the Central Powers and Bulgaria crushed Serbia for the time being, and by their triumph opened communications through Bulgaria with the Ottoman Empire, profoundly influenced the situation in the Gallipoli Peninsula.
Foreseeing that the British Government must ultimately resign itself to a withdrawal of the Dardanelles army from its dangerous situation on the Gallipoli Peninsula, Monro had already, some days before the permission to evacuate reached him from home, given instructions that certain preparations were to be made towards facilitating that operation.
The relaxing by the Allies of their frail hold upon the outer coastline of the Gallipoli Peninsula had been effected more successfully than the most sanguine amongst them had permitted themselves to hope for.
Although the evacuation of Helles without appreciable loss in personnel reflected great credit on the British staff and the troops concerned in it, as also on the Royal Navy, whose work at the beaches was carried out under great difficulties, the escape of the final remnants of the Dardanelles army from the Gallipoli Peninsula was facilitated by the negligence of the troops opposed to them.
Moseley was in Australia with the British Association in 1914 when the World War broke out; he returned to England, obtained a commission in the Royal Engineers, and was killed by a Turkish bullet on the Gallipoli peninsula on Aug.
Subsequent Bulgarian operations were confined to resisting Turkish attempts to advance from Chatalja; to the occupation of Thrace down to the Sea of Marmora; to resisting an attack on the Bulgar lines across the isthmus of the Gallipoli Peninsula; and to the capture of Adrianople.
In 445 Bleda died, and two years afterwards Attila, now sole ruler, undertook one of his most important expeditions against the Eastern empire; on this occasion he pushed southwards as far as Thermopylae, Gallipoli and the walls of Constantinople; peace was cheaply purchased by tripling the yearly tribute (which accordingly now stood at 2 100 pounds of gold, or £84,000 sterling) and by the payment of a heavy indemnity.
1915, as commandant of the Turkish detachments, in Anaforta Bay (Gallipoli peninsula), he gave proof of his ability, and enjoyed the especial confidence of the German commander-in-chief, Gen.
Gallipoli has an unattractive appearance; its streets are narrow and dirty, and many of its houses are built of wood, although there are a few better structures, occupied by the foreign residents and the richer class of Turkish citizens.
Gallipoli is the seat of a Greek bishop. It has two good harbours, and is the principal station for the Turkish fleet.
The guns of Gallipoli command the Dardanelles just before the strait joins the Sea of Marmora.
The district (sanjak) of Gallipoli is exceedingly fertile and well adapted for agriculture.
It has about ioo,000 inhabitants, and comprises four kazas (cantons), namely, (1) Maitos, noted for its excellent cotton; (2) Keshan, lying inland north of Gallipoli, noted for its cattle-market, and producing grain, linseed and canary seed; (3) Myriofyto; and (4) Sharkeui or Shar-Koi (Peristeri) on the coast of the Sea of Marmora.
There are no important industrial establishments in Gallipoli itself, except steam flour-mills and a sardine factory.
The line of railway between Adrianople and the Aegean Sea has been prejudicial to the transit trade of Gallipoli, and several attempts have been made to obtain concessions for the construction of a railway that would connect this port with the Turkish railway system.
Live stock, principally sheep, pass through Gallipoli in transit to Constantinople and Smyrna.
After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Gallipoli passed into the power of Venice.
About the middle of the 14th century the Turks invaded Europe, and Gallipoli was the first city to fall into their power.
There is more than one meaning of Gallipoli discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream.
Otranto Gallipoli, Lecce, Ugento.
In 1356 the Turks seized Gallipoli; in 1361 the sultan Murad I.
Gallipoli, Italy >>
Railways are (1) the coast railway (a part of the Bologna-Gallipoli line), with branches from Giulianova to Teramo and from Termoli to Campobasso; (2) a line diverging S.E.