I was just beginning to read Caesar's "Gallic War" when I went to my home in Alabama.
The former established himself in 64 at Panticapaeum, and was planning new campaigns against the Romans when his own troops revolted, and, after vainly trying to poison himself, he ordered a Gallic mercenary to kill him.
As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.
In the time of Caesar the Arverni were a powerful confederation, the Arvernian Vercingetorix being the most famous of the Gallic chieftains who fought against the Romans.
And Oscan, (3) Messapian, (4) North Oscan, (5) Volscian, (6) East Italic or Sabellic, (7) Latinian, (8) Sabine, (9) Iguvine or Umbrian, (10) Gallic, (11) Ligurian and (12) Venetic.
(~) It is difficult to point to any definite evidence by which we may determine the dates of the earliest appearance of Gallic tribes in the north of Italy.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
At first the Treveri resisted the appeal of Civilis and his Batavi to join the revolt, and built a defensive wall from Trier to Andernach, but soon after the two Treverans, Tutor and Classicus, led their fellow tribesmen, aided by the Lingones (Langres), in the attempt to set up a "Gallic empire."
The Gallic Wars (58-51) of Caesar (q.v.) added all the rest of Gaul, north-west of the Cevennes, to the Rhine and the Ocean, and in 49 also annexed Massilia.
Apt was at one time the chief town of the Vulgientes, a Gallic tribe; it was destroyed by the Romans about 125 B.C. and restored by Julius Caesar, who conferred upon it the title Apta Julia; it was much injured by the Lombards and the Saracens, but its fortifications were rebuilt by the counts of Provence.
The name is taken from that of a Gallic tribe, the Cadurci, and was applied to a small district watered by the Dordogne, the Lot and the Tarn.
He mentions it as originally a Gallic invention for giving a bright hue to the hair (" rutilandis capillis ").
Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
There were the true indigenous Thracians and also Celtic tribes such as the Treres in the early period, the Getae and Trausi later, and the Gallic Scordisci in Roman days.
Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan.
For the Gallic retreat, see Polybius ii.
Cremona was founded by the Romans in 218 B.C. (the same year as Placentia) as an outpost against the Gallic tribes.
He served as a legatus throughout Caesar's Gallic campaigns and took Caesar's place whenever he went to Rome.
The other, territorially distinct from it for reasons of statecraft, was the Temple of Roma and Augustus, to which the inhabitants of the 64 Gallic cantons in the three Roman provinces of Aquitania, Lugudunensis and Belgica - the so-called Tres Galliae - sent delegates every summer to hold games and otherwise celebrate the worship of the emperor which was supposed to knit the provincials to Rome.
ANJOU, the old name of a French territory, the political origin of which is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, on the lines of which was organized, after the conquest by Julius Caesar, the Roman civitas of the Andecavi.
But this is not certain, and even if it were, it does not necessarily imply that Hippolytus enjoyed the personal teaching of the celebrated Gallic bishop; it may perhaps merely refer to that relation of his theological system to that of Irenaeus which can easily be traced in his writings.
The Gallic trooper sent to strike off the old man's head quailed, it is said, before the fire of his eyes, and fled exclaiming, "I cannot kill Gaius Marius."
Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate.
The Gallic leuga, or league, is a different unit, being 1.59 British miles by the very concordant itinerary of the Bordeaux pilgrim.
And a strange division of the shekel in 10 (probably therefore connected with this decimal mina) is shown by a series of bronze weights (44) with four curved sides and marked with circles (British Museum, place unknown), which may be Romano-Gallic, averaging 125/10.
Bibulus, who belonged to the as the provincia of the consuls of B.e.the supervision Gallic p 59 P wars.
The mutual jealousies of the Gallic tribes had enabled German invaders first to gain a foothold on the left bank of the Rhine, and then to obtain a predominant position in Central Gaul.
The Gallic chiefs now appealed to Caesar to deliver them from the actual or threatened tyranny of Ariovistus.
In 52 B.C. he passed a fresh law de jure magistratuum which cut away the ground beneath Caesar's feet by making it possible to provide a successor to the Gallic provinces before the close of 49 B.C., which meant that Caesar would become for some months a private person, and thus liable to be called to account for his unconstitutional acts.
Have been written in 51 B.C. and carry the narrative of the Gallic campaigns down to the close of the previous year (the eighth book, written by A.
The Gallic War, though its publication was doubtless timed to impress on the mind of the Roman people the great services rendered by Caesar to Rome, stands the test of criticism as far as it is possible to apply it, and the accuracy of its narrative has never been seriously shaken.
The Gallic campaigns have been treated by Napoleon III., Histoire de Jules Cesar (1865-1866), which is valuable as giving the result of excavations, and in English by T.
Twelve speeches of the kind (Pliny's included), eight of them by famous Gallic rhetoricians (Claudius Mamertinus, Eumenius, Nazarius, Drepanius Pacatus) and three of anonymous authorship, have been collected under the title of Panegyrici veteres latini (ed.
After the death of Vitellius, the inhabitants refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome instigated by Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus, and drove back Sabinus, who had invaded their territory.
Its exports include timber, citrons, skins, chestnuts and gallic acid.
After Rome had been weakened by the Gallic invasion (390) Praeneste joined its foes in a long struggle with Rome.
They carried double-edged swords and short daggers for use hand to hand, the steel of which was hardened b y being buried underground; their defensive armour was a light Gallic shield or a round wicker buckler, and greaves of felt round their legs.
The first treats of the mythic history of the nonHellenic, and afterwards of the Hellenic tribes, to the destruction of Troy; the second section ends with Alexander's death; and the third continues the history as far as the beginning of Caesar's Gallic War.
Their chief town was Vindinum or Suindinum (corrupted into Subdinnum), afterwards Civitas Cenomanorum (whence Le Mans), the original name of the town, as usual in the case of Gallic cities, being replaced by that of the people.
The Cenomani nearly always appear in history as loyal friends and allies of the Romans, whom they assisted in the Gallic war (225 B.C.), when the Boii and Insubres took up arms against Rome, and during the war against Hannibal.
Anthragallol is synthetically prepared by the condensation of benAoic and gallic acids with sulphuric acid OH i [[Cooh + I 10h - 2h20+ Hooc /Oh]] or from pyrogallol and phthalic anhydride in the presence of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride.
He distinguished himself as one of Julius Caesar's legates in the Gallic campaigns, served in Britain, and afterwards under his brother in Cilicia.
It was regarded as the political and religious centre of the Gallic nation.
During the war they sent 12,000 men to relieve Alesia, but shared in the defeat of the Gallic army.
Thus in Cappadocia the facial type of the nonAryan race is common, and in Galatia there are traces of Gallic blood.
During the 3rd century, 278-277 B.C., certain Gallic tribes crossed the Bosporus and Hellespont, and established a Celtic power in central Asia Minor.
According to Pliny, Spanish, Gallic and Greek wines were all consumed in Rome during the 1st century of the Christian era, but in Gaul the production of wine appears to have been limited to certain districts on the Rhone and Gironde.
To judge from the traces of an inscription, the arch seems to have been erected in honour of Tiberius, perhaps to commemorate his victory over the Gallic chieftain Sacrovir in A.D.
He was also author of prose Lucubrationes and perhaps of an epic poem on Caesar's Gallic wars (Pragmatia Belli Gallici).
Some appear to be glucosides of gallic acid, since they yield this acid and a sugar on hydrolysis, e.g.
Pp. 268 et seq.); and conversely on boiling with dilute acids or alkalis it takes up a molecule of water and yields two molecules of gallic acid, C 7 H 6 0 5.
The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.
From tannic acid is also made gallic acid, which resembles tannic acid but has no astringent taste.
Tannic acid is absorbed as gallic acid into the blood and eliminated as gallic and pyrogallic acids, darkening the urine.
Gallic acid does not coagulate albumen when used externally.