They may have owed their origin to the Roman galleys: they did without doubt owe their sails to them.
The great majority of the two hundred galleys and eight galeasses, of which the fleet was composed, came from Venice, under the command of the proveditore Barbarigo; from Genoa, which was in close alliance with Spain, under Gianandrea Doria; and from the Pope whose squadron was commanded by Marc Antonio Colonna.
It consisted in all of 273 galleys which were of lighter build than the Christians', and less well supplied with cannon or small arms. The Turks still relied mainly on the bow and arrow.
It was formed in the traditional order of the galleys - a long line abreast, subdivided into the centre or "battle" commanded by Don John in person, the left wing under the proveditore Barbarigo, and the right under Gianandrea Doria.
On their right Scirocco outflanked the Venetians of Barbarigo, but the better build of the galleys of Saint Mark and the admirable discipline of their crews gave them the victory.
The galleys of the Order of Malta, which were stationed at this point, suffered severely, and their flagship was taken with great slaughter.
Historically the battle is interesting because it was the last example of an encounter on a great scale between fleets of galleys and also because it was the last crusade.
The second duke, twice married, was father of at least eleven sons and six daughters, the sons including Edward the lord high admiral, killed in boarding Pregent's galleys at Brest, Edmund the knight marshal of the army at Flodden, and William the first Lord Howard of Effingham.
His foreign tour, during which he visited Germany, Holland, England, France and Austria, lasted nearly a year and a half, and was suddenly interrupted, when on his way from Vienna to Venice to study the construction of war-galleys, by the alarming news that the turbulent stryeltsi of Moscow had mutinied anew with the intention of placing Sophia on the throne.
Of Lerwick, from which it is separated by the Sound of Bressay, in which Haakon V., king of Norway, anchored his galleys on the expedition that ended so disastrously for him at Largs (1263).
At last the armies of sultan and pretender met at Ulubad (Lopadion) on the Rhyndacus in Asia Minor; Mustafa's troops fled at the first onset; Lampsacus, where the pretender took refuge, was captured with the aid of the Genoese galleys under Adorno.
Piale, a Croatian who had been brought up in the imperial harem and succeeded Sinan as capudan-pasha, crowned a series of victories over the galleys of Andrea Doria by the capture of the island of Jerba, off Tripoli (July 31, 1560).
Torgud was now summoned to Constantinople to answer for piracies committed on the friendly galleys of Venice; but he sailed instead to Morocco, and there for two years defied the sultan's authority.
Decreed the same penalty for sacrilege joined to superstition and impiety, and in the somewhat belated religious persecution of the duke of Bourbon in 1724 those convicted of larceny in churches, together with their accomplices, were condemned, the men to the galleys for life or for a term of years, the women to be branded with the letter V and imprisoned for life, or for a term.
In 1228 the Pisans met and defeated the united forces of Florence and Lucca near Barga in the Garfagnana, and at the same time they despatched fifty-two galleys to assist Frederick II.
Here seventy-two Pisan galleys engaged eightyeight Genoese, and half the Pisan fleet was destroyed.
In 1845 Comte made the acquaintance of Madame Clotilde de Vaux, a lady whose husband had been sent to the galleys for life.
Two years later he distinguished himself at the king's siege of Frederikshall by the invention of machines for the transport of boats and galleys overland from Stromstadt to Iddefjord, a distance of 14 m.
The Sultan placed his troops under the veteran Mustapha, and his galleys under his youthful relative Piali, he hesitated to make either supreme and ordered them to await the arrival of Dragut with his Algerian allies, before deciding on their final plans.
The first was composed according to Agostino Giustiniani of fiftyeight galleys, and eight panfili, a class of light galleys of eastern origin named after the province of Pamphylia.
To the right were the galleys of the Spinola family, and of four of the eight "companies" into which Genoa was divided - Castello, Piazzalun&a, Macagnana and Son Lorenzo.
To the left were the galleys of the Dorias, and of the other four companies, Porta, Soziglia, Porta Nuova and Il Borgo.
The second line of twenty galleys, under the command of Benedetto Giacaria (or Zaccharie), was placed so far behind the first that the Pisans could not see whether it was made up of war-vessels or of small craft meant to act as tenders to the others.
He then bade the Cossacks prepare their boats for a raid upon the Turkish galleys, and secured the co-operation of the tsar in the Crimean expedition by a special treaty.
He then sailed down the Volga with a fleet of thirty-five galleys, capturing the more important forts on his way and devastating the country.
By the middle of April two warships, twentythree galleys, four fireships and numerous smaller craft were safely launched.
Who equipped two galleys and sailed south along the African coast in 1291.
A desire to observe the phenomenon from a nearer point of view, and also to rescue some of his friends, from their perilous position on the shore of the Bay of Naples, led to his launching his galleys and crossing the bay to Stabiae (Castellamare), where he perished, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.
The galleys of the order subsequently took part in various expeditions against the Turks and the Barbary pirates.
After much deliberation the republic agreed to transport 4500 horse and 29,000 foot to Palestine with provisions for one year, for a sum of 85,000 marks; in addition 50 Venetian galleys would be provided free of charge, while Venice was to receive half the conquests made by the crusaders.
Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Zengg, which is shallow and exposed to sudden gales, so the Uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the Illyrian shore, and easily sunk and recovered, if a temporary landing became necessary.
Mary was now in France, the destined bride of the Dauphin; while Knox, released from the galleys, preached his doctrines in Berwick and Newcastle, and was a chaplain of Edward VI., till the crowning of Mary Tudor drove him to France and Switzerland.
The rowers in each vessel, though among the northern folk these were free men and warriors, not slaves as in the Roman and Carthaginian galleys, would yet need to be supplemented by a contingent of fighting men, marines, in addition to their crew.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
Willingly linked to the dying power of Spain, were already decadent, and on the 10th of January 1615 a great Portuguese armada, consisting of six great galleons, three smaller ships, two galleys and sixty rowed barges, was defeated for the second time in Swally roads by Captain Nicholas Downton, in command of four British vessels.
He returned to Genoa for good in 1555, and being very old and infirm he gave over the command of the galleys to his great-nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria, who conducted an expedition against Tripoli, but proved even more unsuccessful than his uncle had been at Algiers, barely escaping with his life.
His renown was soon increased by his active interference on behalf of the Swiss of the Château-Vieux Regiment, condemned to the galleys for mutiny at Nancy.
By these means the benches of the galleys were filled, and Colbert took no thought of the long unrelieved agony borne by those who filled them.
He caused the suffering of thousands in the galleys; he had no ear, it is said, for the cry of the suppliant.
Her husband was condemned, in his absence, to the galleys for life.
Volumes and almost libraries have been written on the Calas affair, and we can but refer here to the only less famous cases of Sirven (very similar to that of Calas, though no judicial murder was actually committed), Espinasse (who had been sentenced to the galleys for harbouring a Protestant minister), Lally (the son of the unjustly treated but not blameless Irish-French commander in India), D'Etalonde (the companion of La Barre), Montbailli and others.
Their leading ships were severely mauled, and their whole force so crippled that they could make no pursuit of the Dutch when they drew off, their injured ships being towed by the Spanish galleys, in the late afternoon.
Three Genoese galleys were sunk and twentytwo taken.
In June 1547 St Andrews yielded to the French fleet, and the prisoners, including Knox, were thrown into the galleys on the Loire, to remain in irons and under the lash for at least nineteen months.
After his two years in the French galleys, if not before, Knox suffered permanently from gravel and dyspepsia, and he confesses that his nature "was for the most part oppressed with melancholy."
Jakob Wallenberg (1746-1778) described a voyage he took to the East Indies and China under the very odd title of Min son pei galejan (" My Son at the Galleys "), a work full of humour and originality.
But on the 13th of June the prince restored his temporalities, on condition of his maintaining three galleys with 50 men-at-arms and 50 archers for three months, or providing the wages of 3 00 men.
It consisted of 50o sail, of which 250 were galleys, and among these a hundred were greater than any then used in Europe.
At any rate England was as helpless as the Empire when first the Danish and Norwegian galleys began to cross the North Sea, and to beat down both sides of Britain seeking for prey.
The only chance against them was that, if caught too far from the base-fort where they had run their galleys ashore, they might find their communication with the sea cut off, and be forced to fight for their lives surrounded by an infuriated countryside.
He began to lay down galleys and long ships, and hired pirates renegade vikings no doubtto train crews for him and to teach his men seamanship. The scheme, however, was only partly completed when in 876 three Danish kings entered Wessex and resumed the war.
100 galleys and all their crews perished.
When thousands after thousands are dragooned out of their country for the sake of their religion, or sent to row in the galleys for selling salt against law, - when the liberty of every individual is at the mercy of every prostitute, pimp or parasite that has access to power or any of its basest substitutes, - my mind, I own, is not at once prepared to be satisfied with gentle palliatives for such disorders" (Francis to Burke, November 3, 1790).
Pellisson.s methods of conversion, considered too slow, were accelerated by the violent persecution of Louvois and by the kings galleys, sion of until the day came when Louis XIV., deceived by the the edict clergy, crowned his record of complaisant legal methods by revoking the edict of Nantes.
In order to attach and defend these colonies Colbert created a navy which Lecame his passion; he took convicts to man the galleys in the Mediterranean, and for the fleet in the Atlantic he established the system of naval reserve which still obtains.
The Genoese admiral, Luigi de' Fieschi, was taken with 5 of his galleys, and others were wrecked.
If Pisani had directed his course to Genoa itself, which was thrown into a panic by the defeat at Anzio, it is possible that he might have dictated peace, but he thought his squadron too weak, and preferred to follow the Genoese galleys which had fled to Famagusta.
The Venetians were defeated with the loss of all their galleys except six.
Pisani stationed the galleys under his command in the open sea outside Brondolo, and during the rest of the year blockaded the enemy closely.
Two days later Cesarini received the tidings that a fleet of galleys had set off for the Bosporus to prevent Murad (who, crushed by his recent disasters, had retired to Asia Minor) from recrossing into Europe, and the cardinal reminded the king that he had sworn to co-operate by land if the western powers attacked the Turks by sea.
On reaching Varna, the Hungarians found that the Venetian galleys had failed to prevent the transit of the sultan, who now confronted them with fourfold odds, and on the 10th of November 1444 they were utterly routed, Wladislaus falling on the field and Hunyadi narrowly escaping.
While the galleys, being unfit for the high seas, were confined to the Mediterranean and the coast, the sailing vessels ranged into the Atlantic as far as the Canaries or even to Iceland.
In his youth he was taken prisoner by the Spaniards, and was forced to row in the galleys during four years.
Until the 17th century the pirates used galleys, but a Flemish renegade of the name of Simon Danser taught them the advantage of using sailing ships.