By this means a gall is produced on the under side of the leaf.
Malpighi ~fl 1679 gave excellent figures and accounts of leaf-roUing and gall insects, and Grew in 1682 equally good descriptions of a leafmining caterpillar.
He found that the development of a gall is due to a temporary modification of the part affected, not, as is generally thought, in consequence of the deposition of an egg by the insect, but of the injection of a poisonous substance which has the effect of stimulating the protoplasm to develop a gall instead of normal structure.
If the gall-bladder was swollen, it pointed to an extension or enlargement of some kind.
(8)Walther of Aquitaine, chiefly known from the Latin poem Waltharius, written by Ekkehard of St Gall at the beginning of the 10th century, and fragments of an 8th-century Anglo-Saxon Epic Waldere.
They are the " gall-flies," many of the species laying eggs in various plant-tissues where the presence of the larva causes.
The formation of a pathological growth or gall, always of a definite form and characteristic of the species; the " oak-apple " and the bedeguar of the rose are familiar examples.
The gall is cup-shaped, and its outer surface is crumpled and covered with small warts and hairs.
Within this gall the stock-mother lives and surrounds herself with numerous parthenogenetically produced eggs - sometimes as many as two hundred in a single gall; these eggs give birth after six or eight days to a numerous progeny (gallicola), some of which form new galls and multiply in the leaves, whilst others descend to the roots and become the root-dwelling forms already described.
The transformations from the larval state are completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or perfect insect, tunnels its way, - usually in autumn, though sometimes, as has been observed of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, after hibernation.
What in California are known as " flea seeds " are oak-galls made by a species of Cynips; in August they become detached from the leaves that bear them, and are caused to jump by the spasmodic movements of the grub within the thin-walled gall-cavity."
The young shoots are chosen by many species of Cynipidae and their allies as a receptacle for their eggs, giving rise to a variety of gall-like excrescences, from which few oak trees are quite free.
There is a class of gall-like or pustular outgrowths for which no external cause has as yet been determined, and which are therefore often ascribed to internal causes of disease.
A gall mite (Phytoptus pyri) sometimes severely injures the leaves, on which it forms blisters - the best remedy is to cut off and burn the diseased leaves.
He was banished and forcibly removed from his monastery, and with St Gall and others of the monks he withdrew into Switzerland, where he preached with no great success to the Suebi and Alamanni.
In certain gall-flies (Cynipidae) no males are known to exist at all, and the species seems to be preserved entirely by successive parthenogenetic generations.
Metchnikoff observed (1866) in the development of the parthenogenetic eggs produced by the precocious larva of the gall-midge Cecidomyia that a large " polar-cell " appeared at one extremity during the primitive cellsegmentation.
Wagner made his classical observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs developed in the precociouslyformed ovaries of a larval gall-midge (Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by studies on insects of the same family and of the related Chironomidae.
P. Marchal has (1904) described this power in two small parasitic Hymenoptera - a Chalcid (Encyrtus) which lays eggs in the developing eggs of the small moth Hyponomeuta, and a Proctotrypid (Polygnotus) which infests a gall-midge (Cecidomyid) larva.
Comprises gall-flies, ichneumon-flies, ants, wasps, bees.
On papyrus in book form are still extant in different libraries of Europe, viz.: the Homilies of St Avitus, of the 6th century, at Paris; Sermons and Epistles of St Augustine, of the 6th or 7th century, at Paris and Geneva; works of Hilary, of the 6th century, at Vienna; fragments of the Digests, of the 6th century, at Pommersfeld; the Antiquities of Josephus, of the 7th century, at Milan; Isidore, De contemptu mundi, of the 7th century, at St Gall; and the Register of the Church of Ravenna, of the 10th century, at Munich.
August von Gall in 1880 obtained the complete system of the binary octavic (Math.
The system of the quadratic and cubic, consisting of 15 forms, and that of two cubics, consisting of 26 forms, were obtained by Salmon and Clebsch; that of the cubic and quartic we owe to Sigmund Gundelfinger (Programm Stuttgart, 186 9, 1 -43); that of the quadratic and quintic to Winter (Programm Darmstadt, 1880); that of the quadratic and sextic to von Gall (Programm Lemgo, 3873); that of two quartics to Gordan (Math.
Besides the celebrated school of the Palace, where Alcuin had among his hearers the members of the imperial family and the dignitaries of the empire as well as talented youths of humbler origin, we hear of the episcopal schools of Lyons, Orleans and St Denis, the cloister schools of St Martin of Tours, of Fulda, Corbie, Fontenelle and many others, besides the older monasteries of St Gall and Reichenau.
In the monastery of St Gall there was considerable logical activity, but nothing of philosophical interest is recorded.
Lord Lister's discoveries brought these new methods to bear with a certainty and a celerity previously undreamed of; and many visceral maladies, such as visceral ulcers, disease of the pancreas, stone of the kidney or gall-bladder, perityphlitis, ovarian dropsy, which in the earlier part of the 19th century were either fatal or crippling, are now taken promptly and safely in hand, and dealt with successfully.
These Trematodes occur in the alimentary canal and adjacent organs of Mollusca, the gall-bladder of Chimaera, and the intestine of Chelonia and of certain fish.
Yet the night was not without its stars; at Rome Leo the Great and Gregory the Great could preach, and the missionaries Patrick, Columba, Columbanus, Augustine, Wilfrid, Willibrord, Gall and Boniface are known by their fruits.
All naturalists in the sense proposed by him, to include the sawflies, gall-flies, ichneumon-flies and their allies, ants, wasps and bees.
There are species of gall-fly in which males are unknown, the unfertilized eggs always developing into females.
Gall-fly grubs are provided with vegetable food through the eggs being laid by the mother insect within plant tissues.
All the other families of Hymenoptera, including the gall-flies, ichneumons and aculeates, have the first abdominal segment closely united with the thorax, the second abdominal segment constricted so as to form a narrow stalk or " waist," and legless larvae without a hinder outlet to the food-canal.
The Cynipoidea include the gall-flies and their parasitic relations.
It lives in the grub of a gall-midge and it ultimately becomes changed into the usual white and fleshy hymenopterous larva.
Before the end of the 9th century a monk of St Gall drew up a chronicle De gestis Karoli Magni, which was based partly on oral tradition, received from an old soldier named Adalbert, who had served in Charlemagne's army.
HULDREICH ZWINGLI (1484-1531), Swiss reformer, was born on the 1st of January 1484, at Wildhaus in the Toggenburg valley, in the canton of St Gall, Switzerland.
These points were discussed at a fresh congress where about 900 persons were present, and where Vadian (Joachim von Watt, the reformer of St Gall) presided.
Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau, 2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H.
Gall nuts, gathered on the neighbouring Kurdish mountain slopes, are mostly exported, but are also made use of by native dyers; and hides, wax, cotton and gum are sold.
The Argonautica was unknown till the first four and a half books were discovered by Poggio at St Gall in 1417.
Thus the characteristics of the currant-gall of Spathegaster baccarum, L., which occurs alike on the leaves and on the flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to the act of oviposition, and not to the functions of the parts producing it; the bright red galls of the saw-fly Nematus gallicola are found on four different species of willow, Salix fragilis, S.
2 Often the gall bears no visible resemblance to the structures out of which it is developed; commonly, however, outside the larval chamber, or gall proper, and giving to the gall its distinctive form, are to be detected certain more or less modified special organs of the plant.
The gall of Cecidomyia strobilina, formed from willow-buds, is mainly a rosette of leaves the stalks of which have had their growth arrested.
The small, smooth, seed-shaped gall of the American Cynips seminator, Harris, according to W.
Newman held the view that many oak-galls are pseudobalani or false acorns: " to produce an acorn has been the intention of the oak, but the gall-fly has frustrated the attempt."
The polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, 6 which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length.
7 The characters of galls are constant, and as a rule exceedingly diagnostic, even when, as in the case of ten different gall-gnats of an American willow, Salix humilis, it is difficult or impossible to tell the fullgrown insects that produce them from one another.
In a common gall-nut that authority distinguished seven constituent portions: an epidermis; a subdermic cellular tissue; a spongy and a hard layer, composing 1 P. Cameron, Scottish Naturalist, ii.
Among the Hymenoptera are the gall-wasps (Cynips and its allies), which infect the various species of oak.
The treasures he brought to light at Reichenau, Weingarten, and above all St Gall, restored many lost masterpieces of Latin literature, and supplied students with the texts of authors whose works had hitherto been accessible only in mutilated copies.
There seems no reason to doubt the St Gall MS., which states that the law had its origin in an agreement between the great Alamannic lords and Duke Landfrid, who ruled the duchy from 709 to 730.
The work of the monk of St Gall is found in the Monumenta, Band ii.; an edition of the Historia de vita Caroli Magni et Rolandi, edited by F.
He should not criticize her for being too talkative.