Incited by the discoveries of Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the, creation of a vacuum.
In 1850 he published a tragedy, Galileo Galilei, and two volumes of his Lectures on the Atomic Theory and Essays Scientific and Literary appeared in 1858, with a preface by his kinsman Dr John Brown, the author of Horae Subsecivae.
These dreary times, however, are brightened by one glorious name - that of Galileo Galilei.
On this account he was accused of impiety by the Stoic Cleanthes, just as Galileo, in later years, was attacked by the theologians.
Nearly two years were passed in Geneva; visiting Italy in 1641, he remained during the winter of that year in Florence, studying the "paradoxes of the great star-gazer" Galileo, who died within a league of the city early in 1642.
The defects of Descartes lie rather in his apparently imperfect apprehension of the principle of movements uniformly accelerated which his contemporary Galileo had illustrated and insisted upon, and in the indistinctness which attaches to his views of the transmission of motion in cases of impact.
When Napier published the Canonis Descriptio England had taken no part in the advance of science, and there is no British author of the time except Napier whose name can be placed in the same rank as those of Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, or Stevinus.
Benedetto Castelli (1577-1644), and Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), two of the disciples of Galileo, applied the discoveries of their master to the science of hydrodynamics.
The list of professors and alumni is long and illustrious, containing, among others, the names of Bembo, Sperone Speroni, Veselius, Acquapendente, Galileo, Pomponazzi, Pole, Scaliger, Tasso and Sobieski.
Suffice it to say that in spite of its spiritualistic starting-point its general result was to give a stimulus to the prevailing scientific tendency as represented by Galileo, Kepler and Harvey to the principle of mechanical explanations of the phenomena of the universe.
Tartaglia, Nova Scientia (1537) Galileo (1638); Robins, New Principles of Gunnery (1743); Euler (trans.
Since the modern discovery of the science of motion by Galileo which changed natural science, and the modern revolution of philosophy by Descartes which changed metaphysics, the study of Aristotle has become less universal; but it did not die out, and received a fresh stimulus especially from Julius Pacius, who going back through G.
The Copernican theory of the solar system - that the earth revolved annually about the sun - had received confirmation by the observations of Galileo and Tycho Brahe, and the mathematical investigations of Kepler and Newton.
Centuries elapsed after Aquinas before Galileo and his successors reformed natural science, and before Bacon destroyed the metaphysical dualism of matter and form by showing that a form in Nature is only a law of the action of matter, and that, as the action of a body is as individual as the body, the form is eternal only in thought (ratione).
These great improvements, due to the genius of Galileo, of Bacon, of Descartes, are the fresh beginnings of modern thought, from which we dare not turn back without falling into obscurantism.
The earliest recorded systematic experiments as to the motion of falling bodies were made by Galileo at Pisa in the latter years of the 16th century.
Galileo proceeded to measure the motion of a body on a smooth, fixed, inclined plane, and found that the law of constant acceleration along the line of slope of the plane still held, the acceleration decreasing in magnitude as the angle of inclination was reduced; and he inferred that a body, moving on a smooth horizontal plane, would move with uniform velocity in a straight line if the resistance of the air, and friction due to contact with the plane, could be eliminated.
We owe to Newton (1642-1727) the consolidation of the views which were current in his time into one coherent and universal Galileo- system, sometimes called the Galileo-Newton theory, Newton Theory.
I was told that it had been printed, but that every copy had been at the same time burnt at Rome, and that Galileo had been himself condemned to some penalty" 14 He has also seen a copy of Galileo's condemnation .
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
It was investigated by Galileo, who erroneously determined it to be a parabola; Jungius detected Galileo's error, but the true form was not discovered until 1691, when James Bernoulli published it as a problem in the Aeta Eruditorum.
Xxiv., from which it was copied and reprinted in the Ada Eruditorum (1707), and also in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Paris; General Laws of Nature and Motion (1705), a work which is commended by Wolfius as illustrating and rendering easy the writings of Galileo and Huygens, and the Principia of Newton; An Institution of Fluxions, containing the First Principles, Operations, and Applications of that admirable Method, as invented by Sir Isaac Newton (1706).
The Galileo-Newton theory of motion is that, relative to a suitably chosen base, and with suitable assignments of mass, all accelerations of particles are made up of mutual (so-called) actions between pairs of particles, whereby the two particles forming a pair have accelerations in opposite directions in the line joining them, of magnitudes inversely proportional to their masses.
It does not, however, afford a convenient starting-point for a general theory, because it is apt to involve some confusion of phenomena which, from the point of view of the Galileo-Newton theory, are distinct in character.
Newton's law of gravitation affords the most notable example of the process of verification of a law of force, and incidentally of the Galileo-Newton theory.
Weight is in fact not purely a combination of forces, in the sense in which that term is defined in connexion with the laws of motion, but corresponds to the Galileo acceleration with which the body would begin to move relatively to the earth if the string were cut.
Galileo measured time for the purpose of his experiments by the flow of water through a small hole under approximately constant conditions, which was of course a very old method.
- Galileo, Dialogues (translations: "The System of the World" and "Mechanics and Local Motion," in T.
Galileo Galilei >>
During this journey, the duration of which cannot be precisely stated, Hobbes acquired some knowledge of French and Italian, and also made the important discovery that the scholastic philosophy which he had learned in Oxford was almost universally neglected in favour of the scientific and critical methods of Galileo, Kepler and Montaigne.
In Florence in 1636 he saw Galileo, for whom he ever retained the warmest admiration, and spent eight months in daily converse with the members of a scientific circle in Paris, held together by Malin Mersenne (q.v.).
112), makes two incidental references to Bacon's writings, but never mentions Bacon as he mentions Galileo, Kepler, Harvey, and others (De corpore, ep. ded.), among the lights of the century.
His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.
Backwards, Hobbes's relations are rather with Galileo and the other inquirers who, from the beginning of the 17th century, occupied themselves with the physical world in the manner that has come later to be distinguished by the name of science in opposition to philosophy.
The cycloid was a famous curve in those days; it had been discussed by Galileo, Descartes, Fermat, Roberval and Torricelli, who had in turn exhausted their skill upon it.
His experiments and his treatise (written before 1651, published 1663) on the equilibrium of fluids entitle him to rank with Galileo and Stevinus as one of the founders of the science of hydrodynamics.
Its success greatly helped to break down the old prejudices, and to bring home to the minds of ordinary men the truth of the new ideas propounded by Galileo and Torricelli.
E Galileo Galilei (Rome, 1875); Gregorovius, Urban VIII.
It was used by Galileo as early as 1612, and came into English use much later, when it supplanted trunk and cylinder, the terms hitherto used to denote the telescope.
Fuentes"; and Lorenzi Pigorna writes, 4 under date 31st August 1609, that "Galileo had been appointed lecturer at Padua for life on account of a perspective like the one which was sent from Flanders to Cardinal Borghese."
Galileo, in his Nuncius Sidereus, states that, happening to be in Venice about the month of May 1609, he heard that a Belgian had invented a perspective instrument by means of which distant objects appeared nearer and larger,.
In his Saggiatore Galileo states that he solved the problem of the construction of a telescope the first night after his return to Padua from Venice, and made his first telescope next day by fitting a convex lens in one extremity of a.
Galileo may thus claim to have invented the telescope independently, but not till he had heard that others had done so.
Galileo devoted all his time to improving and perfecting the telescope.
These brilliant achievements, together with the immense improvement of the instrument under the hands of Galileo, overshadowed in a great degree the credit due to the original discoverer, and led to the universal adoption of the name of the Galilean telescope for the form of the instrument invented by Lippershey.
The autos da f e of Seville and Madrid, the flames to which Bruno, Dolet and Paleario were flung, the dungeon of Campanella and the seclusion of Galileo, the massacre of St Bartholomew and the faggots of Smithfield, the desolated plains of Germany and the cruelties of Alva in the Netherlands, disillusioned Europe of those golden dreams which had arisen in the earlier days of humanism, and which had been so pleasantly indulged by Rabelais.
Polyphase alternators were first exhibited at the Frankfort electrical exhibition in 1891, developed as a consequence of scientific researches by Galileo Ferraris (1847-1897),Nikola Tesla,M.
Of his other compositions, the most individual are those in which, deeply impressed by the problems of his day, he has sought to reconcile science and religion, especially the fine dialogue between Milton and Galileo, where the former, impressed by Galileo's predictions of the intellectual consequences of scientific progress, resolves "to justify the ways of God to man."
Evangelista Torricelli, in the first regular dissertation on the cycloid (De dimensione cycloidis, an appendix to his De dimensione parabolae, 1644), states that his friend and tutor Galileo discovered the curve about 1599.
Galileo attempted the evaluation by weighing the curve against the generating circle; this rough method gave only an approximate value, viz., a little less than thrice the generating circle.
In Italian, collections of dialogues, on the model of;Plato, have been composed by Torquato Tasso (1 586), by Galileo (1632), by Galiani (1770), by Leopardi (1825), and by a host of lesser writers.
When Galileo visited Rome in December 1615 he was warmly received by Bellarmine, and the high regard in which he was held is clearly testified in Bellarmine's letters and in Galileo's dedication to the cardinal of his discourse on "flying bodies."
Galileo would not have wasted his time in corresponding with a man from whom he could learn nothing; and, though Sarpi did not, as has been asserted, invent the telescope, he immediately turned it to practical account by constructing a map of the moon.
Galileo Galilei, Kepler's most eminent contemporary, took a foremost part in dissipating the obscurity that still hung over the very foundations of mechanical science.
Galileo was nevertheless by far the ablest and most versatile of these early telescopic observers.
Its communication by Castelli to Galileo in 1641, with a proposal that Torricelli should reside with him, led to Torricelli repairing to Florence, where he met Galileo, and acted as his amanuensis during the three remaining months of his life.
At the same time, however, he followed with interest the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler, and became more and more dissatisfied with the Peripatetic system.
Nevertheless, while Fallopius, Vesalius and Galileo were claiming attention to their discoveries, G.
GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and experimental philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of February 1564.
From his earliest childhood Galileo, the eldest of the family, was remarkable for intellectual aptitude as well as for mechanical invention.
A direct proof of its material nature was given by Galileo, who weighed a copper ball containing compressed air.
MOTION Before the time of Galileo (1564-1642) hardly any attention had been paid to a scientific study of the motions of terrestrial bodies.