The thickness of the ice does not exceed 3 or 4 ft.; but during the alternations of cold and warm weather, with strong gales, in winter, stacks of ice, 70 and 80 ft.
In Britain the evergreen oak is quite hardy in ordinary winters, and is useful to the ornamental planter from its capacity for resisting the sea gales; but it generally remains of small size.
Bristol, Exeter and other important towns have been laid, and eventually telegraphic communication between every important town in the United Kingdom will be rendered safe from interruptions caused by gales or snowstorms.
In consequence, however, of the frequent violence of the southwesterly gales and other causes, the communication ceased in the middle of the 19th century, and the artificial harbour designed by John Rennie has gradually fallen into decay.
Gales were being repaired.
Coal lying under the sea below low-water mark belongs to the crown, and can only be worked upon payment of royalties, even when it is approached from shafts sunk upon land in private ownership. In the Forest of Dean, which is the property of the crown as a royal forest,there are certain curious rights held by a portion of the inhabitants known as the Free Miners of the Forest, who are entitled to mine for coal and iron ore, under leases, known as gales, granted by the principal agent or gaveller representing the crown, in tracts not otherwise occupied.
During many successive years he saw a great deal of hard service, and so constantly had he to contend, on his various expeditions, with adverse gales and dangerous storms, that he was nicknamed by the sailors, "Foul-weather Jack."
Along the whole west coast the climate resembles nothing in the British Islands so much as Cork and Kerry, for there are the same wet gales from a western ocean, the same clouds gathering on the dripping sides of wild mountains, an equal absence of severe frosts and hot sunshine, and a rich and evergreen vegetation.
While Siam enjoys a dry climate with cool nights (the thermometer at night often falling to 40°-50° F., and seldom being over 90° in the shade by day), the eastern coast of the Malay Peninsula receives the full force of the north-easterly gales from the sea.
In summer the east wind brings dense and sudden fogs; while in winter the northerly gales blow straight into the mouths of the harbours.
Fogs occur during summer and early autumn, and furious gales may be expected four or five times in the year, when the crash of the Atlantic waves is audible for 20 m.
New Castile has a still more rigorous climate, for although the mean annual temperature is about S9° Fahr., the summer heat in the valleys is peculiarly oppressive, and the highlands are swept by scorching or icy gales, laden with dust.
In some places the south-western gales are so severe that a belt of trees is useful as a break wind and shelter.
The fine bay on which it lies is screened from the Atlantic gales by the island of Kerrera (41 m.
Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Zengg, which is shallow and exposed to sudden gales, so the Uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the Illyrian shore, and easily sunk and recovered, if a temporary landing became necessary.
On the coasts of Europe marine algae detached by the autumnal gales are commonly carted on to the land as a convenient manure.
The harbour is screened from south-westerly gales by the isle of Sanday.
The harbour of the village of Kinloch, at the head of Loch Scresort, is resorted to during gales from the N.W.
At the time of the equinox it is commonly believed that strong gales may be expected.
This' popular idea has no foundation in fact, for continued observations have failed to show any unusual prevalence of gales at this season.
In one case observations taken for fifty years show that during the five days from the list to the 25th of March and September, there were fewer gales and storms than during the preceding and succeeding five days.
In England the pine is largely employed as a " nurse " for oak trees, its conical growth when young admirably adapting it for this purpose; its dense foliage renders it valuable as a shelter tree for protecting land from the wind; it stands the sea gales better than most conifers, but will not flourish on the shore like some other species.
On the other hand a string of islands extends along this coast, which offer many safe and easily accessible places of anchorage to ships during the fierce winter gales which rage in the Adriatic. The principal are Pago, Pasman, Isola Lunga and Isola Incoronata, Brazza, Lesina, Curzola and Meleda.
Petrels are archaic oceanic forms, with great powers of flight, dispersed throughout all the seas and oceans of the world, and some species apparently never resort to land except for the purpose of nidification, though nearly all are liable at times to be driven ashore, and often very far inland, by gales of wind.'
In February and March heavy gales are frequent, and hurricanes sometimes occur, causing scarcity by destroying the crops.
Westerly gales are more frequent, and have more effect on the water surface than easterly ones, lowering the water as much as 7 to 8 ft.
In winter the gales often fill the streets to the depth of several feet, with drifts of sand from the surrounding dunes, which, however, are noted in summer for the dry and bracing air.
Navigation, which is practicable for only one hundred and eighty days in the year, is rather difficult owing to fogs and gales, which are often accompanied, even in April and September, with snow-storms. The prevailing winds blow from N.W.
An hour, and sometimes accelerated by gales, on the E.