When Galen again attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I.
Galen showed himself anxious to reform the church, but his chief energies were directed to increasing his power and prestige.
His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Ali; all present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
Galen is said to have invented hiera-picra, which he employed as an anthelmintic; it is still used in England as a domestic remedy.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
In the first half of the 14th century lived the two translators Qalonymos ben David and Qalonymos ben Qalonymos, the latter of whom translated many works of Galen and Averroes, and various scientific treatises, besides writing original works, e.g.
Cosimo he called his second father, saying that Ficino had given him life, but Cosimo new birth, - the one had devoted him to Galen, the other to the divine Plato, - the one was physician of the body, the other of the soul.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
From the time of Galen, however, it has been usual to speak of the life of the body either as proceeding in accordance with nature (Kara Ou6cv, secundum naturam) or as overstepping the bounds of nature (irapa OvQCV, praeter naturam).
Galen classes them all as of the dogmatic school; but, whatever may have been their characteristics, they are of no importance in the history of the science.
The reputation of Herophilus is attested by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works about him and his writings, and he is further spoken of with the highest respect by Galen and Celsus.
His numerous works are also almost entirely lost, fragments only being preserved by Galen and others.
The work of Celsus is thus for us only second in importance to the Hippocratic writings and the works of Galen; but it is valuable rather as a part of the history of medicine than as the subject of that history.
Galen was a man furnished with all the anatomical, medical and philosophical knowledge of his time; he had studied all kinds of natural curiosities, and had stood in near relation to important political events; he possessed enormous industry, great practical sagacity and unbounded literary fluency.
Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.
In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object - a philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making everything fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diagnosis, or recognition, of disease.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity.
Galen showed extreme ingenuity in explaining all symptoms and all diseases on his system.
But the reputation of Galen grew slowly; he does not appear to have enjoyed any pre-eminence over other physicians of his time, to most of whom he was strongly opposed in opinion.
When the Arabs possessed themselves of the scattered remains of Greek culture, the works of Galen were more highly esteemed than any others except those of Aristotle.
His great work Evvaywyai tar pucai, of which only about one-third has been preserved, was a medical encyclopaedia founded on extracts from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides (fl.
In the West the period after Galen affords little evidence of anything but a gradual though unvarying decline in Roman medicine.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
873) or Joannitius, the translator and commentator of Hippocrates and Galen, belong to this period.
925-926), a native of Rai in the province of Dailam (Persia), who practised with distinction at Bagdad; he followed the doctrines of Galen, but learnt much from Hippocrates.
He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
As in the case of Galen, the formal and encyclopaedic character of Avicenna's works was the chief cause of his popularity and ascendancy, though in modern times these very qualities in a scientific or medical writer would rather cause him to become more speedily antiquated.
The greater part is taken from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides and later Greek writers.
The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
None of these Salernitan works rise much above the rank of compilations, being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the methodists.
The school of Salerno thus forms a bridge between the ancient and the modern medicine, more direct though less conspicuous than that circuitous route, through Byzantium, Bagdad and Cordova, by which Hippocrates and Galen, in Arabian dress, again entered the European world.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
The basis of medicine through the middle ages had been literary and dogmatic, and it was literary and dogmatic still; but the medical literature now brought to light - including as it did the more important works of Hippocrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknown, and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, especially the work of Celsus - was in itself far superior to the second-hand compilations and incorrect versions which had formerly been accepted as standards.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Rabelais not only lectured on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter; and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared with that of the Arabians.
The great Aldine Press made an important contribution to the work, by editiones principes of Hippocrates and Galen in the original.
Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna.
Among many descriptions of this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred to, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing that the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be known in medicine.
The practice and theory of medicine were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with everincreasing additions from the chemical school.
It is noteworthy that concurrently with the rise of clinical study the works of Hippocrates were more and more valued, while Galen began to sink into the background.
Boerhaave may be in some respects compared tO Galen, but again differed from him in that he always abstained from attempting to reduce his knowledge to a uniform and coherent system.
The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.
In Parthey's edition (Berlin, 1850) other recipes for the manufacture of kuphi, by Galen and Dioscorides, are given; also some results of the editor's own experiments.
He was a great admirer of Galen; and in his writings he protests emphatically against quackery and the superstitious remedies of the astrologers.
Medical literature was indebted for its origin to the works of Galen and the medical school of Gondesapur.
He has been identified with the Aelius Gallus frequently quoted by Galen, whose remedies are stated to have been used with success in an Arabian expedition.
Polemon, Aristotle and Adamantius may also be named as having dealt with the subject; as also have the medical writers of Greece and Rome - Hippocrates, Galen and Paulus Aegineta, and in later times the Arabian commentators on these authors.
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
His translation of a treatise of Galen was printed at Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, who, in the same year and place, was the first to use Greek type in England.
It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.