He had previously written his commentaries on the epistles to the Galatians (1865), Philippians (1868) and Colossians (1875), the notes to which were distinguished by sound judgment and enriched from his large store of patristic and classical learning.
But it can be shown to be no more so than that of Galatians (Zahn, Einleitung, i.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
The prosperity of the city, rudely shaken by the Galatians and the Bithynians, was utterly destroyed in the Mithradatic war.
P. Migne, Cursus Patrologiae Latinae, viii., include commentaries on Galatians, Ephesians and Philippians; De Trinitate contra Arium; Ad Justinum Manichaeum de Vera Came Christi; and a little tract on "The Evening and the Morning were one day" (the genuineness of the last two is doubtful).
In addition to the books already named, he wrote Italian expositions of Romans (Geneva, 1545) and Galatians (Augsburg, 1546).
This precipitated a very serious conflict, of which we learn something from the Epistle to the Galatians and the Book of Acts (xv.
13, and his efforts to establish his own apostolic character to the satisfaction of the Corinthians and Galatians (I Cor.
At present, both in N and B, Hebrews is placed after 2 Thess., but in B there is also a continuous numeration of sections throughout the epistles, according to which I to 58 cover Romans to Galatians, but Ephesians, the next epistle, begins with 70 instead of 59, and the omitted section numbers are found in Hebrews.
Obviously, the archetype placed Hebrews between Galatians and Ephesians, but the scribe altered the order and put it between 2 Thess.
Starting from Galatians and 1 Corinthians, which are obviously the genuine letters of a Christian leader called Paul to his converts, Baur accepted 2 Corinthians and Romans as the work of the same hand.
Indications given in the Acts; (ii.) on the evidence of the Epistle to the Galatians, which, though in appearance more precise, can be and is interpreted in very different ways.
Most critics, indeed, are now agreed that the fourteen years are to be calculated from the conversion; and most of them still hold that the visit of Galatians ii.
In that case, of course, the two visits of Galatians i.
The new view clears away some manifest difficulties in the reconciliation of the Epistle and the Acts, and the early date for Galatians in relation to the other Pauline epistles is not so improbable as it may seem; but the chronology still appears more satisfactory on the older view, which enables the conversion to be placed at least three years later than on the alternative theory.
They were henceforth ranked as "Galatians" by the outside world equally with their overlords, and it was from their numbers that the "Galatian" slaves who figure in the markets of the ancient world were drawn.
Commentary on Galatians (1899).
His publications were connected with biblical criticism and interpretation, some of them being for popular use and others more strictly scientific. To the former class belong the Biblical Cyclopaedia, his edition of Cruden's Concordance, his Early Oriental History, and his discourses on the Divine Love and on Paul the Preacher; to the latter his commentaries on the Greek text of St Paul's epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians and Galatians, published at intervals in four volumes.
(d) " Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.
In John once, Galatians four times, i Corinthians four times.
According to Galatians, Paul saw none of the apostles on this occasion except Peter and James: it is therefore probable that none of the others were then in Jerusalem.
(1895 sqq.); Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces (1906); Pauline and other Studies (1906); Historical Commentary on Galatians, &c. (1899); Cities of St Paul (1907);; see also T.
In this he contends that only the Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians and Romans are genuinely Pauline, and that the Paul of Acts is a different person from the Paul of these genuine Epistles, the author being a Paulinist who, with an eye to the different parties in the Church, is at pains to represent Peter as far as possible as a Paulinist and Paul as far as possible as a Petrinist.
These are, the account given by Paul of his visits to Jerusalem in Galatians as compared with Acts; and the character and mission of the apostle Paul, as they appear in his letters and in Acts.
In Galatians he claims perfect freedom in principle, for himself as for the Gentiles, from the obligatory observance of the law; and neither in it nor in Corinthians does he take any notice of a decision to which the apostles had come in their meeting at Jerusalem.
Lightfoot, it should be remembered that this was before the " South Galatian " theory as to the date of Paul's work among the Galatians came to prevail.
In any case, the very difference of the perspective of Acts and of Galatians, in recording the same epochs in Paul's history, argues such an independence in the former as is compatible only with an early date.
EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS, one of the books of the New Testament.
The degree of elementary Greek culture needful for the understanding of Galatians cannot be shown to have been foreign to the inhabitants of north Galatia.
So far as any trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the northern provinces.
So Douglass Round in The Date of St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians (1906).
10), made their appearance among the Galatians, promulgating a "gospel" which meant fidelity to, not freedom from, the Law (i.
It was not too late to arrest the Galatians on their downward plane, and the apostle, unable or unwilling to re-visit them, despatched this epistle.
Paul seems to have been taken aback by the news of the Galatians' defection.
2 Apparently they were clever enough to keep the Galatians in ignorance that the entire law would require to be obeyed (v.
12 f.), and, harping still on Abraham, the apostle essays, with fresh rabbinic dialectic, to establish Christianity over legalism as the free and final religion for men, applying this to the moral situation of the Galatians themselves (v.
In any case it is assumed that the Galatians knew his handwriting.
Literature to Galatians (Die Urspriinglichkeit des Galaterbriefes, Leipzig, 1903) involves repeated exaggerations of the literary evidence.
Volter, who applies this method to the other Pauline epistles, admits that Galatians,whether authentic or not, is substantially a literary unity (Paulus and seine Briefe, 1905, pp. 2 29-285).
The general style of the epistle is vigorous and unpremeditated, "one continuous rush, a veritable torrent of genuine and inimitable Paulinism, like a mountain stream in full flood, such as may often have been seen by his Galatians" (J.
Ramsay's Historical Commentary on Galatians (1899) contains archaeological and historical material which is often illuminating.
Askwith's essay (Epistle to the Galatians, its Destination and Date, 1899) advocates ingeniously the south Galatian theory, and W.
Wood (Studies in St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, 1887) criticizes Lightfoot.
The Galatians, Pergamum, Rhodes and other Greek states.
This wide sense was shown by Lightfoot (in his commentary on Galatians, 1865) to exist in the New Testament, e.g.
Lightfoot's dissertation in his Commentary on Galatians, to which Dr F.
Paul and the Three,"in Commentary on Galatians) maintain the distinction.
Besides scattered reminiscences of Romans, I Corinthians and Galatians, enumerated in the article referred to, the section devoted to a refutation of the doctrine of "justification by faith apart from works" undeniably presupposes the Pauline terminology.
(4) A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St Paul to the Galatians, First and Second Corinthians, Romans and Ephesians.
Rollock wrote Commentaries on the Epistles tc the Ephesians (1590) and Thessalonians (1598) and Hebrews (1605), the book of Daniel (1591), the Gospel of St John (1599) and some of the Psalms (1598); an analysis of the Epistle to the Romans (1594), and Galatians (1602); also Questions and Answers on the Covenant of God (1596), and a Treatise on Effectual Calling (1597).