At the same time it cannot be gainsaid that it has opened the way to fraud.
Not even a dispensation obtained by some means from the imperial chancery, not even the power of the Church could avail to break the chain of servitude."It can hardly be gainsaid that these artificial arrangements bear a very striking analogy to those of the Indian caste-system; and if these class restrictions were comparatively short-lived on Italian ground, it was not perhaps so much that so strange a plant found there an ethnic soil less congenial to its permanent growth, but because it was not allowed sufficient time to become firmly rooted; for already great political events were impending which within a few decades were to lay the mighty empire in ruins.
But the result could not be gainsaid; it was for the French a complete and costly failure.
Moreover it cannot be gainsaid that Belgium during her union with Holland enjoyed a degree of prosperity that was quite remarkable.
When Henry stood forward and claimed the vacant throne by right of conquest and also by right of descent, no one gainsaid him.
Caterina at first refused, for she clung to her royalty, but Venice was a severe parent to its adopted daughter and would not be gainsaid; she was forced to abdicate in favour of the republic, and returned to Venice in 1489.