With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.
Gabbro occurs in the peninsula of Fethland; diorite in Northmavine between Rinas Voe and Mavis Grind; and epidote-syenite in Dunrossness.
To N.E.; this is succeeded by a belt of gabbro, and finally the eastern border is again occupied by micaceous and chloritic schists.
A soil of very close texture, the gabbro, is found, most largely in the north-east.
It appears to consist chiefly of gabbro, peridotite, serpentine and other very basic eruptive rocks, which are believed to be of Cretaceous age.
They are accompanied by intrusions of diabase and gabbro, and they are sometimes folded, sometimes but little disturbed.
Immense -sheets of dolerite, gabbro, or allied basic rocks indicate eruptive materials intruded as sills or poured out as lavas contemporaneously with the sedimentary formations among which they lie.
A remarkable feature in the volcanic phenomena was the disruption of the basaltic plateaus by large bosses of gabbro and of various granitoid rocks.
Geologically, its northern half is composed of Torridonian sandstone, with basalt at points between the West coast and the centre, of gabbro in the south-east, with a belt of gneissose rocks on its east seaboard and of quartz-porphyry in the south-west.
These mountains, consisting of various sorts of gneiss, intrusive granite and gabbro, have been formed partly by faulting but mainly by erosion, the lines of which have been determined by the presence of faults or the presence of relatively soft rocks.
The oldest rocks exposed are gneiss, talc-schist and serpentine, with intrusive masses of gabbro and diabase.
Intrusions of hyperite, gabbro (anorthite-gabbro at Radmanso in the province of Stockholm) and diorite are also abundant.
Lithologically they are crystalline schists, together with granite, diorite, gabbro and other igneous rocks.
The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above), and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro, a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.
The more deep-seated type of these rocks is seen in the olivine-gabbro mass of Carlingford Mountain; but most of the igneous region became covered with sheets of basaltic lava, which filled up the hollows of the downs, baked the gravels into a layer of red flints, and built up, pile upon pile, the great plateaus of the north.
During this time of comparative rest, rhyolites were extruded locally in county Antrim; and there is very strong evidence that the granite of the Mourne Mountains, and that which cuts the Carlingford gabbro, were added at the same time to the crust.
- The ancient or plutonic igneous rocks (including granite, syenite, diorite, gabbro, porphyry, porphyrite, norite retinite) appear at various points of the two previously described regions.
Von Hochstetter of the Austrian expedition classified the most important formations thus: eruptive, serpentine and gabbro; marine deposits, probably late Tertiary, consisting of sandstones, slates, clay, marls, and plastic clay; recent corals.
Peridotite and gabbro form much of the eastern peninsula (Banggai).