By fusing litharge with boron trioxide, glasses of a composition varying with the proportions of the mixture are obtained; some of these are used in the manufacture of glass.
If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
At ordinary temperatures tin proves fairly ductile under the hammer, and its ductility seems to increase as the temperature rises up to about 100° C. At some temperature near its fusing point it becomes brittle, and still more brittle from - 14° C. downwards.
The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.
The policy of fusing Greeks and Orientals again is diversely judged.
Fusing cells, the male cell FIG.
In many Gymnosperms the male nucleus penetrates the female nucleus before fusing with it (Blackman, Ikeno).
The temperature of the interior of the chamber soon rises to more than the fusing-point of sulphur (113° C.), and the distillate accumulates at the bottom as a liquid, which is tapped off from time to time to be cast into the customary form of rods.
The proboscis broken off and expelled is generally reproduced, the posterior ribbon-like end of this reproduced portion again fusing with the walls of the sheath.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.
By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of naphthalene, C 1 oH 8; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C18H12, and possibly pyrene, C16H1n; by fusing five, picene, C22 H 14.
The halogens may be sometimes detected by fusing with lime, and testing the solution for a bromide, chloride and iodide in the usual way.
"Ultramarine poor in silica" is obtained by fusing a mixture of soft clay, sodium sulphate, charcoal, soda and sulphur.
In the same way artificial glass can be devitrified if it be kept at a temperature slightly below the fusing point for some days.
Its two lips fusing together at the corners of the mouth are prolonged into the socalled arms. These arms, which together form the lophophore, TV.
- These triple alloys are noted for their low fusing points.
Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.
The former is produced at temperatures below, the latter at temperatures above the fusing-point of the oxide.
Another oxychloride, PbC1 2.7PbO, known as "Cassel yellow," was prepared by Vauquelin by fusing pure oxide, PbO, with one-tenth of its weight of sal ammoniac. "Turner's yellow" or "patent yellow" is another artificially prepared oxychloride, used as a pigment.
It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.
Lead silicates are obtained as glasses by fusing litharge with silica; they play a considerable part in the manufacture of the lead glasses.
Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.
To test the purity of the metal the tin-smelter heats the bars to a certain temperature just below the fusing point, and then strikes them with a hammer or lets them fall on a stone floor from a given height.
The basin, made scrupulously clean, is heated to beyond the fusing point of tin.
Flores stanni is a finely divided mixture of the metal and oxide obtained by fusing the metal in the presence of air for some time.
Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.
It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.
And museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.
Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.
Aristotle refers to brass as the "metal of the Mosynoeci," 2 which is produced as a bright and light-coloured XaXK6s, not by addition of tin, but by fusing up with an earth.
If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.
Moissan succeeded in fusing about 4 lb of either of these metals in 5 or 6 minutes in a furnace similar to that last described.
By fusing the mineral, very finely powdered, with six times its weight of potassium bisulphate in a platinum crucible, then extracting the melt with cold water and boiling the filtered solution for a long time.
They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.
Strontium chloride, SrC1 2.6H 2 O, is obtained by dissolving the carbonate in hydrochloric acid, or by fusing the carbonate with calcium chloride and extracting the melt with water.
Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.
Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.
The dichloride, BiC1 2, is obtained as a brown crystalline powder by fusing the metal with the trichloride, or in a current of chlorine, or by heating the metal with calomel to 250°.
Moissan obtained a carbon-bearing metal by fusing the pentoxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
Tantalum pentoxide, Ta205, is a white amorphous infusible powder, or it may be crystallized by strongly heating, or by fusing with boron trioxide or microcosmic salt.
It may be prepared from osmiridium by fusing the alloy with zinc, the zinc being afterwards removed by distillation.
Troost produced crystallized zirconium by fusing the double fluoride with aluminium in a graphite crucible at the temperature of melting iron, and extracting the aluminium from the melt with hydrochloric acid.
When the mass is quietly fusing, the crucible is heated for two hours in a wind-furnace.
Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.
This philosopher, a man of striking and attractive personality, succeeded in fusing the Megarian dialectic with Cynic naturalism.
Among the difficulties here to be contended with are the destructive action of fused chlorides and of the reduced alkali metals upon most non-metallic substances available for the containing vessel and its partition, and also of the anode chlorine upon metals; also the low fusing-point (95° C. for sodium, and 62° C. for potassium) and the low specific gravity of the metals, so that the separated metal floats as a fused layer upon the top of the melted salt.
Sodium hydroxide has certain advantages compared with chloride, although it is more costly; its fusing-point is only 320° C., and no anode chlorine is produced, so that both containing vessel and anode may be of iron, and no porous partition is necessary.
A preparation sufficing for most purposes is obtained by digesting the commercial article in absolute alcohol, decanting and evaporating the solution to dryness and fusing in silver vessels.
Chemically pure chloride of potassium is most conveniently prepared from the pure perchlorate by heating it in a platinum basin at the lowest temperature and then fusing the residue in a wellcovered platinum crucible.
The acid sulphate or bisulphate, Khso 4, is readily produced by fusing thirteen parts of the powdered normal salt with eight parts of sulphuric acid.
After the Toltecs came the Chichimecs, whose name, derived from chici, dog, is applied to many rude tribes; they are said to have come from Amaquemecan under a king named Xolotl, names which being Aztec imply that the nation was Nahua; at any rate they appear afterwards as fusing with more cultured.
Potassium cyanide may be obtained by fusing potassium ferrocyanide either alone - K4Fe(NC)6=4KNC+ FeC2+N2 - or with potassium carbonate [V.
Rossler and Hasslacher prepare the double potassium sodium cyanide by fusing potassium ferrocyanide with sodium, the product of fusion being extracted with water and the solution evaporated: K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +2Na = Fe+ 4KNC 2NaNC. This process gives a product free from cyanate, which was always formed in the older fusion processes.
7764 (1890)] decomposes sulphocyanides by fusing with zinc: the zinc is heated with a small quantity of carbon and when completely fused potassium sulphocyanide is added, the mass being well stirred and heated until it thickens and begins to turn red; finally it is allowed to cool out of contact with air, lixiviated with water, the solution decanted, and evaporated to a paste in vacuo.
The fusing-point of the metal is about 730° C. (1350° F.), and the magnesium is therefore reduced in the form of melted globules which gradually accumulate.
P. 621) by fusing the oxide and sulphide in the electric furnace.
~ ------s In many of the lower d- ~ - ~ -~ d plants the fusing cells ~ 9