At the fundus are placed the concrement-cells with their conspicuous otoliths (con) and the inconspicuous auditory cells, which are connected with the subumbral nerve - ring.
Near the posterior pole of the fundus, but somewhat excentrically placed towards the temporal or outer side, is the fovea centralis, a slight depression in the retina, composed almost entirely of cones, the spot of most acute vision.
Next comes the gall bladder, a pear-shaped bag, the fundus of which is in front and below, the neck behind and above.
The ureters open into the fundus of the bladder as in some Rodents.
Von Grafe, first saw the fundus of the living human eye, with its optic disc and blood-vessels, his face flushed with excitement, and he cried, "Helmholtz has unfolded to us a new world!"