In the beginning of May 1852, when the government of Louis Napoleon required an oath of allegiance from all its functionaries, Arago peremptorily refused, and sent in his resignation of his post as astronomer at the Bureau des Longitudes.
Each elects its governor, legislators and provincial functionaries of all classes, without the intervention of the federal government.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
All these functionaries are nominated by the high commissioner.
These functionaries also hold monthly sessions in the various communes.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
The final and all-important act of selection from among these men was, however, to be made by a personage, styled the proclamateur-electeur, who chose all the important functionaries, and, conjointly with the notabilities of the nation, chose the members for the Council of State (wielding the chief executive powers), the Tribunate and the Senate.
The constitution of 1812 allowed the General Assembly to name the governor from the two candidates receiving the highest number of votes; gave the governor large powers of appointment, even of local functionaries; and required a property qualification for various offices, and even for voters.
Under such a system, and the legal protection enjoyed through it by Ottoman functionaries against evil consequences of their own misdeeds, corruption was rife throughout the empire.
This was summarily considered by the council of ministers and then referred to the budget commission, which was to be composed not only of State functionaries, but of private persons " worthy of confidence, and well versed in financial matters, " and which was invested with the fullest powers of investigation and inquiry.
Special instructions and regulations determined the latitude left to each department in the distribution of the credits accorded to it among its various heads of expenditure, the degree of responsibility of the functionaries within each department and the relations regarding finance and accounts between each department and its dependencies.
In permanent remuneration of certain services to be rendered to the state, the sovereign assigned to civil or military functionaries territorial regions for the purpose, and with the power, of collecting land taxes imposed by Mussulman and Imperial law, i.e.
They are further allowed travelling expenses from and to their constituencies on the basis of rules governing journeys of functionaries receiving a monthly salary of £750.
This, however, is not a real decrease, salaries of functionaries not on the active list having been removed to the region of supplementary credits, as are those of civil departments.
It is administered by imperial functionaries called arazi-memuru; it is with the consent of the latter only that the proprietary rights can be sold.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
The relations of the state with the disestablished church since 1889 have been somewhat anomalous, the government having decided to continue during their lives the stipends of the church functionaries at the time of disestablishment.
The old-fashioned mansion of East Coates, dating from the 17th century, still stands in the close, and is occupied by functionaries of the cathedral.
The formal recognition of Budapest as a royal residence and capital in 1892, and the appointment of independent Hungarian court functionaries in November 1893, mark new stages in its progress.
The Liber de Institutione Principum, a treatise on the duties of kings and their functionaries, has never yet been printed, and the only MS. copy the writer of this article has been able to consult does not contain in its prologue all the information which Echard seems to imply is to be found there.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
In 1690 he moved a famous amendment to the Corporation Bill, proposing the addition of a clause - the purport of which was misrepresented by Macaulay - for disqualifying for office for seven years municipal functionaries who in defiance of the majority of their colleagues had surrendered their charters to the Crown.
He is assisted by a staff of officials similar to the functionaries of a Crown colony, but there is at present no legislative council.
Long, and containing the palace of the emir, the houses of the chief functionaries, the prison and the water-cisterns.
With the increase of the city the operation grew in importance, and was followed by an official lustruni, or purificatory sacrifice, offered on behalf of the people by the censors or functionaries in charge of the classification.
They insisted that the Government should introduce proposals as to the official language of functionaries, for they feared a return of the procedure used by Badeni, which by means of a Government ordinance had altered the received usage and upset the national balance of power; that in Bohemia the purely German sub-districts (Bezirke) should be included in German districts (Kreise), and in like manner the purely Czech sub-districts in Czech districts, so that there would then be a relatively small number of territories of mixed nationality, which would have to be governed bilingually; that minorities should be protected by law; and that in appointing to posts in the offices of the autonomous Bohemian territorial Government, proportionate consideration should be given to the Germans, attention being paid to the fact that in Bohemia more than a third of the population were German, and that they paid more than half the taxes, but that the Czech national majority had appointed more than 90% of Czechs and not even 10% of Germans in the Government offices.
But, on the other hand, the material influence of the priests was greater than it had ever been before; the Temple was the only visible centre of national life in the ages of servitude to foreign power, and the priests were the only great national functionaries, who drew to themselves all the sacred dues as a matter of right and even appropriated the tithes paid of old to the king.
AurOs, self, and KE4aXi, head), of independent headship, a term used of certain ecclesiastical functionaries and organizations.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
The elus and the superintendents, instead of being delegates of the states, became royal functionaries like the baillis and the provosts; imposts, hearth-money (fouage), salt-tax (gabelle), sale-dues (droits de vente), voted for the war, were levied during the whole of Charles V.s reign and added to his personal revenue.
The other hand, pagan and Christian elements in society existed side by side without intermingling, and even openly antagonistic to each otherone aristocratic and the other democratic. In order to induce the masses of the people once more to become loyal to the imperial form of government the emperor Julian tried by founding a new religion to give its functionaries a religious prestige which should impress the popular mind.
Moreover, since the palace controlled the whole of each kingdom, the mayors gradually extended their official authority so as to include functionaries and agents of every kind, instead of merely those attached immediately to the kings person.
Since all rational activity is for some end, the different arts or functions of human industry are naturally defined by a statement of their ends or uses; and similarly, in giving an account of the different artists and functionaries, we necessarily state their end, " what they are good for."
We observe that men are classified according to their functions; all kinds of man, and indeed all organs of man, have their special functions, and are judged as functionaries and organs according as they perform their functions well or ill.
Society thus becomes sole proprietor, intrusting to social groups and social functionaries the management of the various properties.
The ceremony comprised a procession in which the members of the Holy Office, with its familiars and agents, the condemned persons and the penitents took part; a solemn mass; an oath of obedience to the inquisition, taken by the king and all the lay functionaries; a sermon by the Grand Inquisitor; and the reading of the sentences, either of condemnation or acquittal, delivered by the Holy Office.
The administrator of public safety is, however, specially under the minister of justice, who sees that the laws and regulations affecting the police are properly carried out, and he can call on all public functionaries to act in furtherance of that object.
In the beginning of AbortIve 1898 the shahs medical advisers strongly recommended Negotiatlonsa cure of mineral waters in Germany or France, and for British as his departure from Persia without paying the arrears to the army and to thousands of functionaries, or providing a sufficient sum for carrying on the government during his absence, would have created grave discontent, serious negotiations for a loan were entered upon.
There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenues in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.
Directly and indirectly, therefore, the administration of all these political divisions is in the hands of the president, who, in like manner, makes and controls the appointments of all judicial functionaries, subject, however, to receiving recommendations of candidates from the courts and to submitting appointments to the approval of the council of state.