In recent practice some sulphin trioxide, or fuming sulphuric acid, is added, so that the mixture of acids contains less than I% of water.
It is a colourless, strongly fuming gas which has a suffocating smell.
In the massive state it is insoluble in all acids, but when freshly precipitated from solutions it dissolves in fuming nitric acid.
It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.
It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 152-153° C. When heated under pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. (Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 35 0 9).
The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).
Baeyer in 1890, by heating alizarin with fuming sulphuric acid for 24-48 hours at 35-40° C., obtained a product, which after treatment with caustic soda gave a sulphuric acid ester of quinalizarin, and this after acidification and boiling was converted into quinalizarin (Alizarin Bordeaux) or 18.104.22.168 tetra-oxyanthraquinone.
Meta-dinitrobenzene is formed by the direct nitration of nitrobenzene with fuming nitric acid, the product being poured into water and recrystallized from dilute alcohol.
The hydrides of the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which resemble one another very strongly.
The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water.
It is a nearly colourless fuming liquid of unpleasant smell, which can be solidified to a mass of crystals melting at-6° C. It dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine when heated.
When heated with fuming hydriodic acid to 300° C. it yields normal pentane and ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to glutarimide and to a piperidinium oxide or oxime (R.
Fournier (Comptes rendus, 1901, 150, p. 102) obtained phosphorus dichloride, P2C14, as a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid, freezing at -28° and boiling at 180° with decomposition.
Pyrophosphoryl chloride, P 2 0 3 C1 4, corresponding to pyrophosphoric acid, was obtained by Geuther and Michaelis (Ber., 1871, 4, P. 766) in the oxidation of phosphorus trichloride with nitrogen peroxide at low temperature; it is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at about 212° with some decomposition.
The acid so obtained from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) fumes strongly in moist air, hence its name "fuming sulphuric acid"; another name for the same product is "Nordhausen sulphuric acid," on account of the long-continued practice of this process at Nordhausen.
KOnigs, and the observation that anthraquinone yielded oxyanthraquinones when treated in the cold with strong sulphuric acid, and the recent introduction of fuming sulphuric acid for the oxidation of naphthalene to phthalic acid, a process of great value in the manufacture of artificial indigo, may be noted.
Altogether this process has been brought to such a pitch of simplicity and perfection, that it is cheap enough, not merely for the manufacture of fuming oil of vitriol of all strengths, but even for that of ordinary sulphuric acid of chamber-acid strength, while it is decidedly cheaper than the old process in the case of stronger acids, otherwise obtained by concentration by fire.
It is sometimes called Cadet's fuming liquid, and its composition was determined by R.
The distillate obtained was diluted with one hundred volumes of ligroin (previously purified by shaking with fuming sulphuric acid) and then shaken for one or two hours with sulphuric acid (using ten volumes of acid to one volume of the distillate), the acid layer diluted with water, neutralized by lead carbonate and the lead salt again distilled with an equivalent quantity of ammonium chloride.
Fuming anyway, she pushed the curtains away from the balcony door and stepped into the night, winter's chill taking some of the heat out of her.
Still fuming, Rainy joined them.
A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.
It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 17-18° C., and is readily decomposed by water with formation of boric and hydrochloric acids.
It is an ambercoloured, fuming liquid possessing a very unpleasant irritating smell.
Thionyl fluoride, SOF 21 has been obtained as a fuming, gas by decomposing arsenic fluoride with thionyl chloride (Moissan and Lebeau, Corn pt.
OH =S02C12+ H 2 SO It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 69° C. and which is readily decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
Nitromethane, CH 3 NO 2, is a colourless oil which boils at 101° C. Fuming sulphuric acid decomposes it into carbon monoxide and hydroxylamine.
It is a colourless fuming liquid of specific gravity 2.269 at o°; it freezes at - 33° C., and boils at I13.9°.
It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 146-148° C. It is decomposed by water, and also when heated between 350° and 1000° C., but it is stable both below and above these temperatures.
Nitrostyrolene results when styrolene is treated with fuming nitric acid.
It is a fuming liquid, which is soluble in benzene and in acetic acid; it dissolves in water to form a deep blue solution.
Down to - 16° C. when H 2 SO 4 crystallizes out, or by the addition of anhydrous S0 3 in the shape of fuming acid.
Since the development of the contact processes the fuming acid has become so cheap that it is now exclusively used for the preparation of the acids approaching the composition of "monohydrate."
Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
Since about 1800 this industry had been confined to the north-west of Bohemia, and it survived just till 1900, when it was entirely abandoned - not because its product had become any less necessary, but, quite on the contrary, because the enormously increasing demand for fuming sulphuric acid, arising through the discovery of artificial alizarine and other coal-tar colours, could not possibly be supplied by the clumsy Bohemian process.
It is a colourless, non-fuming gas, which gives a colourless, mobile liquid at -10° and 20 atmospheres; the liquid boils at -95° and solidifies at -160° (Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 789).
It is a colourless fuming gas, which liquefies under ordinary pressure at -50°, and under a pressure of 15 atmospheres at 16°; it may be solidified to a snow-like mass.
#-Aminopyridine is obtained by heating a-pyridyl urethane with fuming hydrochloric acid until no more carbon dioxide is liberated (T.
Fuming nitric acid gives a paratrinitro substitution derivative which on reduction gives paraleucaniline; the salt of the carbinol formed on oxidizing this substance is the valuable dye rosaniline.
Trinitrobenzenes, C 6 H 3(N02)3.-Asymmetrical (1.2.4) trinitrobenzene results from the action of fuming nitric and sulphuric acids on para-dinitrobenzene.
Symmetrical (1.3.5) trinitrobenzene is formed by the further nitration of meta-dinitrobenzene with fuming sulphuric and nitric acids; by the action of hydrochloric acid on sodium malonyl aldehyde (H.