The rioters were predominantly from the Hausa Fulani tribe, which is not indigenous to the area.
For example, cache-sexe created by the Kirdi (Fulani) women in northern Cameroon are skirts beaded with a fantastic range of colors.
The country's official language is English, but tribal languages such as Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo) and Fulani are commonly used.
These conditions were that all rights of conquest acquired by the Fulani throughout Northern Nigeria passed to Great Britain, that for the future every sultan and emir and principal officer of state should be appointed by Great Britain, that the emirs and chiefs so appointed should obey the laws of the British government, that they should no longer buy and sell slaves, nor enslave people, that they should import no firearms, except flint-locks, that they should enforce no sentences in their courts of law which were contrary to humanity, and that the British government should in future hold rights in land and taxation.
When these conditions were accepted by the Fulani chiefs the supremacy of Great Britain was established over the entire country.
In the first instance, as following upon conquest or potential conquest, the Fulani emirs who were appointed by government to each of the great native states were installed under a letter of appointment in which (in addition to rights of legislation, taxation and other powers inherent in suzerainty) the ultimate title to all land was transferred from the Fulani dynasty and vested in the British.
Brackenbury, A Short Vocabulary of the Fulani Language (Zungeru, 1907); the articles Nigeria and Sokoto and authorities there cited.
551, 1907) calls attention to the exodus "of thousands of Fulani of all sorts, but mostly Mellawa, from the French Middle Niger," and states that the majority of the emigrants are settling in the Nile valley.
Burdon, "The Fulani Emirates," ibid.