She was the guiding spirit of the first Fronde, when she brought over Armand, Prince de Conti, her second brother, and her husband to the malcontents, but she failed to attract Conde himself, whose loyalty to the court overthrew the first Fronde.
It was during the first Fronde that she lived at the Hotel de Ville and took the city of Paris as god-mother for the child born to her there.
The second Fronde was largely her work, and in it she played the most prominent part in attracting to the rebels first Conde and later Turenne.
There she became more and more Jansenist in opinion, and her piety and the remembrance of her influence during the disastrous days of the Fronde, and above all the love her brother, the great Conde, bore her, made her conspicuous.
In reward for his devotion to the court party during the Fronde he obtained many signal favours, and Saint Aignan was raised to a duchy in the peerage of France (duchepairie) in 1663.
No one had more to do than Retz with the outbreak of the Fronde in October 1648, and his history for the next four years is the history of that confused and, as a rule, much misunderstood movement.
Operations On Land The contemporary military history of Europe included, first, the war between France and Spain, 1654-59, usually called the Spanish Fronde, of which the most notable incident was the great battle of the Dunes fought on the 14th of June 1658 between the French and English under Turenne and the Spaniards under Conde, in which a contingent of Cromwell's soldiers bore a conspicuous part.
He received the title of minister of state on his return to France in April 1649, remained loyal to Mazarin during the Fronde, and was made superintendent of finances in 1653.
The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia (1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (16J9) marked the success of the arms and of the diplomacy of France.
The chief are Madame de Motteville's memoirs for the period of the Fronde, and the letters of Madame de Sevigne and the memoirs of Saint-Simon for the later period.
During the wars of the Fronde it was pillaged in 1652; and in the campaign of 1814 it suffered severely.
His brother Gaston survived him, but gave unexpectedly little trouble during the wars of the Fronde which ensued on the death of Louis XIII.
Capefigue, Richelieu, Mazarin et la Fronde (1835-1836); and Dr J.
His elder brother, Richard Hurrell Fronde (1803-1836), had been one of the leaders of the High Church movement at Oxford.
So by his counsel the queen, while nominally in league with De Retz and the parliamentary Fronde, laboured to form a purely royal party, wearied by civil dissensions, who should act for her and her son's interest alone, under the leadership of Mathieu Mole, the famous premier president of the parlement of Paris.
The Fronde over, Mazarin had to build up afresh the power of France at home and abroad.
(1846), and Saint-Aulaire's Histoire de la Fronde, have been superseded by P. A.
For the Mazarinades or squibs written against him in Paris during the Fronde, see C. Moreau's Bibliographie des mazarinades (1850), containing an account of 4082 Mazarinades.
In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII., Gaston became lieutenantgeneral of the kingdom, and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France; but during the wars of the Fronde he passed with great facility from one party to the other.
He played a conspicuous part in the intrigues and fighting of the Fronde, became in 1648 commander-in-chief of the rebel army, and in 1650 was with his brother Conde imprisoned at Vincennes.
He was concerned in the Fronde of 1651, but soon afterwards became reconciled with Mazarin, and in 16J4 married the cardinal's niece, Anne Marie Martinozzi (1639-1672), and secured the government of Guienne.
He was then director of the college of Senlis, where he composed his Esprit de la Ligue ou histoire politique des troubles de la Fronde pendant le X VI e et le X Vil e siecles (1767).
It was the period of the wars of the Fronde; and in 1651 the triumph of the Conde family drove Cardinal Mazarin from Paris.
During the war of the Fronde it suffered severely at the hands of the royal troops under Turenne.
Venice, the duchy of Milan and the duke of Modena were on his side; the pope and the grandduke of Tuscany were trembling, but the romantic expedition of the duke of Guise to Naples, and the outbreak of the Fronde, saved Spain, who had refused to take part in the treaties of Westphalia and whose ruin Mazarin wished to compass.
It lasted Fronde four years, for motives often as futile as the Grande (1648 Mademoiselles ambition to wed little Louis XIV.,
Its first and shortest phase was the Fronde of the Parlement.
At a period when all the world was a little mad, the parlement The had imagined a loyalist revolt, and, though it raised Fronde an armed protest, this was not against the king but of the against Mazarin and the persons to whom he had Parlenient.
Fronde The victor of Lens and Charenton imagined that every of the one was under an obligation to him, and laid claim to a dictatorship so insupportable that Anne of Austria and Mazarin assured by Gondi of the concurrence of the parlement and peoplehad him arrested.
After the League, Mazarin, after having conquered the Fronde, had to buy back bit by bit the kingdom he had lost, and, like Richelieu, he spread out a network of agents, thenceforward regular and permanent, who assured him of that security without which he could never have carried on his vast plunderings in peace and quiet.
The continual agitations of the Fronde prevented him from persevering in any consistent application during those years which are the most valuable for study, and only instilled in him a horror of revolution, parliamentary remonstrance, and disorder of all kinds; so that this recollection determined the direction of his government.
The retractation imposed upon Cardinal de Noailles, and his replacement in the archbishopric of Paris by Vintimille, an unequivocal Molinist, excited among the populace a very violent agitation against the court of Rome and the Jesuits, the prelude to a united Fronde of the Sorbonne and the parlement.
In the formidable machinery of state, above all in the creation of the Legion of Honor, the Concordat, and the restoration of indirect taxes, they saw the rout of the Revolution: But the expulsion of persons like Benjamin Constant and Madame de Stael sufficed to quell this Fronde of the salons.
And the Fronde, preserved her from concerted and persistent foreign attack.
She was just of age when the Fronde broke out, and, attributing as she did her disappointments to Mazarin, she sympathized with it not a little.
In the new or second Fronde she not only took nominal command of one of the armies on the princes' side, but she literally and in her own person took Orleans by escalade.