Frisian Confession (1528).
FRISIAN ISLANDS, a chain of islands, lying from 3 to 20 M.
They are divided into three groups: - (1) The West Frisian, (2) the East Frisian, and (3) the North Frisian.
The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.
Many of the Frisian legends and folk-songs deal with the submerged villages and hamlets, which lie buried beneath the treacherous waters of the Wadden.
Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.
In the North Frisian group there are also several smaller islands called Halligen.
The Frisian auxiliaries were likewise regarded as excellent troops.
West, north and north-east of this the province is flat and consists of sea-clay or sand and clay mixed, except where patches of low and high fen occur on the Frisian borders.
Of birds, and he seems to have been the first to institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of man; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few years the more precise researches of Volcher Coiter, a Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of birds in general is very creditably described, while in the other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully drawn figures.
Of Flanders, having offered to marry him if he would protect her son Arnulf against Robert the Frisian, Fitz-Osbern accepted the proposal and joined Richilde in Flanders.
Frisian Islands >>
The most important disease hitherto undescribed was rickets, first made known by Arnold de Boot, a Frisian who practised in Ireland, in 1649, and afterwards more fully in the celebrated work of Francis Glisson (1597-1677) in 1651.
It is an amalgamation of the myth tof Beowa, the slayer of the water-demon and the dragon, with the historical legend of Beowulf, nephew and successor of Hygelac (Chochilaicus), king of the Geatas, who was defeated and slain (c. 520) while ravaging the Frisian coast.
By the chain of the Frisian Islands, and W., S., and E.
It was separated from the sea by a belt of marsh and fen uniting Friesland and North Holland, the original coast-line being still indicated by the line of the Frisian Islands.
See Berenberg, Das Nordseebad Norderney (Norden, 18 95); C. Herquet, Geschichte der Inset Norderney 1398 -1711 (1890); and the article FRISIAN ISLANDS,
He accordingly ravaged their country in 791 at the head of an army containing Saxon, Frisian, Bavarian and Alamannian warriors, which penetrated as far as the Raab; and he spent the following year in Bavaria preparing for a second campaign against them, the conduct of which, however, he was compelled by further trouble in Saxony to entrust to his son king Pippin, and to Eric, margrave of Friuli.
In 808 the Frankish authority over the Obotrites was interfered with by Gudrod (Godfrey), king of the Danes, who ravaged the Frisian coasts and spoke boastfully of leading his troops to Aix.
It was at one time a favourite residence of the Frisian nobility, many of whom had their castles here, and it possessed a celebrated university, founded by the Frisian estates in 1585.
The impression made by the red cliffs, fringed by a white beach and supporting the green Oberland, is commonly believed to have suggested the national colours, re.d, white and green, or, as the old Frisian rhyme goes: "Gron is dat Land, Rood is de Kant, Witt is de Sand, Dat is de Flagg vun't hillige Land."
German is the official language, though among themselves the natives speak a dialect of Frisian, barely intelligible to the other islands of the group. There is regular communication with Bremen and Hamburg.
The province also includes the islands of Texel, Vlieland and Terschelling, belonging to the group of the Frisian Islands, as well as Wieringen, Marken and Urk in the Zuider Zee.
The inhabitants (3500) are of Frisian origin, and the official language is German, though in the extreme north of the island, known as List, Danish is spoken.
CHARLES, called THE Good (le Bon), or THE Dane (c. 1084-1127), count of Flanders, only son of St Canute or Knut IV., king of Denmark, by Adela, daughter of Robert the Frisian, count of Flanders, was born about 1084.
Charles was brought up by his mother and grandfather, Robert the Frisian, on whose death he did great services to his uncle, Robert II., and his cousin, Baldwin VII., counts of Flanders.
Fbhr, the most fertile of the North Frisian islands, is principally marshland, and comparatively well wooded.
The city was again walled in 1255; before 1284 it had become a member of the Hanseatic league; and by the end of the 14th century it was practically a powerful independent republic, which exercised an effective control over the Frisian Ommelande between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee.
In the north and south, however, this line is broken by the inlets of the sea which form the Frisian and the South Holland and Zeeland islands respectively; but the dunes themselves are found continued along the seaward side of these islands, thus indicating the original continuity of the coast-line.
The principal sea-inlets in the north are the Texel Gat or Marsdiep and the Vlie, which lead past the chain of the Frisian Islands into the large inland sea or gulf called the Zuider Zee, and the Wadden or " shallows," which extend along the shores of Friesland and Groningen as far as the Dollart and the mouth of the Ems. The inland sea-board thus formed consists of low coasts of sea-clay protected by dikes, and of some high diluvial strata which rise far enough above the level of the sea to make dikes unnecessary, as in the case of the Gooi hills between Naarden and the Eem, the Veluwe hills between Nykerk and Elburg, and the steep cliffs of the Gaasterland between Oude Mirdum and Stavoren.
The Zuider Zee and the bay in the Frisian coast known as the Lauwers Zee also gradually came into existence in the 13th century.
The shores of the Zuider Zee and the Wadden, and the Frisian and Zuider Zee islands, are also partially protected by dikes.
Large quantities of eels are caught in the Frisian lakes.
In 1672 the stadholdership in five provinces had been made hereditary in the family of the prince of Orange, but William died childless, and the republican burgher party was strong enough to prevent the posts being filled up. William had wished that his cousin, Count John William Friso of Nassau, stadholder of Friesland and Gron- - ingen, should succeed him, but his extreme youth and the jealousy of Holland against a " Frisian " stood in the way of his election.
A great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters.
On the coast of East Friesjand there are now only seven of these islands, of which Norderney is best known, while of tile North Frisian Islands, on the western coast of Schleswig, Sylt is the most considerahl~.
Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there were: Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679; Masuran, 142,049; Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305; Cassubian, 100,213; Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80,36,; Italian, 65,961; Moravian, 64,382; Czech, 43,016; Frisian, 20,677; English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841.
BORKUM, an island of Germany, in the North Sea, belonging to the Prussian province of Hanover, the westernmost of the East Frisian chain, lying between the east and west arms of the estuary of the Ems, and opposite to the Dollart.
The few and peaceful traders who explored those northern waters were careful never to lose sight of the Saxon, Frisian and Frankish shores during their passage.
His grammars of Old Frisian, Icelandic and AngloSaxon were unapproached in his own time, and are still admirable.
Is Nordby on the island of Fano, the northernmost of the North Frisian chain.
Close by is the Upstallsboom, the hill of oath and liberty, where every year at Whitsuntide representatives of the seven Frisian coast lands assembled to deliberate.
In the south the northernmost of the North Frisian Islands (Fanb) is Danish.
The German portion of the peninsula is generally similar to that of western Jutland, the main difference lying in the occurrence of islands (the North Frisian) off the west coast in place of sand-bars and lagoons.
Frisian and Saxon merchants from Soest, Bardowiek and other localities in Lower Germany, who already navigated the Baltic and had their factory in Gotland, settled in the new town, where Wendish speech and customs never entered.
To the name of the Frisian Hague, it is entitled as well by similarity of history as by similarity of appearance.
Court of the Frisian stadtholders; and, like the Hague, it is an exceptionally clean and attractive town, with parks, pleasure grounds, and drives.
The royal palace, which was the seat of the Frisian court from 1603 to 1 747, is now the residence of the royal commissioner for Friesland.
It was restored in 1816 and contains a portrait gallery of the Frisian stadtholders.
The splendid tombs of the Frisian stadtholders buried here (Louis of Nassau, Anne of Orange, and others) were destroyed in the revolution 1795.
The museum of the Frisian Society is of modern foundation and contains a collection of provincial antiquities, including two rooms from Hindeloopen, an ancient village of Friesland, some 16thand 17th-century portraits, some Frisian works in silver of the 17th and 18th centuries, and a collection of porcelain and faience.
Horse-breeding has also been practised for centuries, and the breed of black Frisian horse is well known.
Does not include writers who wrote in Frisian or German low-saxon.
(For map, see Denmark.) In addition to the mainland, which decreases in breadth from south to north, the province includes several islands, the most important being Alsen and Fehmarn in the Baltic, and Rom, Sylt and Fohr of the North Frisian chain in the North Sea.
Among the Germans the prevalent tongue is Low German, but the North Frisians on the west coast of Schleswig and the North Sea islands (about 19,000 in all) still speak a Frisian dialect, which, however, is dying out.
Took the part of the complainants and commissioned Duke Godfrey of Lorraine to chastise the young Frisian count.
He found a formidable adversary in the able and warlike Floris >: William, who, becoming bishop of Utrecht in 1054, was determined to recover the lost possessions of his see; and in 1058, in alliance with Hanno, archbishop of Cologne, Egbert, margrave of Brandenburg, the bishop of Liege and others, invaded the Frisian territory.
Again in 1076, at the request of the bishop, Duke Godfrey visited his domains in the Frisian borderland.