The fresco paintings in the galleries are perhaps the most interesting of the extant remains.
I.-Flying Fish Fresco, Phylakopi.
Severo contains Raphael's first independent fresco (1505), much damaged by restoration.
Among the other early works of Mantegna are the fresco of two saints over the entrance porch of the church of S.
15) and Achilleus, said to have been baptized by St Peter, refused to do the bidding of Domitian as praetorians, and entering the service of Flavia Domitilla, suffered martyrdom with their mistress Petronilla, of the Aurelian family closely connected with the Flavii, and the spiritual daughter of St Peter, who was buried in a sarcophagus with the inscription: [[Avreliae Petronillae Fil Dvlcissimae]] This is now in St Peter's, but was probably originally behind the apse of this basilica, for there is a fresco of her in an arcosolium, with a matron named Veneranda.
The most striking of these are the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble busts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial style; the Ludwigskirche, a successful reproduction of the Italian Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind asylum; and, lastly, the university.
Of his decorative paintings, the best known are the elegant compositions (in spirit fresco) on the walls of the Victoria and Albert Museum, representing "The Industrial Arts of War and Peace."
A fresco bearing the figure of a woman holding lilies and a vase was also found in the " Palace of Cadmus " at Thebes (1916), where many Early Mycenaean graves were also excavated.
In thickness, of clay, faced with brick, in the reception rooms wainscoted with stone slabs or tiles, elsewhere plastered, or, in the harem, adorned with fresco paintings and arabesques.
Besides being a painter in oil and fresco Rousseau was an etcher of some ability; many etchings by his hand from the works of the Caracci and from his own designs still exist; they are vigorous, though coarse in execution.
Some of his early Mantuan works are in that apartment of the Castello which is termed the Camera degli Sposi - full compositions in fresco, including various portraits of the Gonzaga family, and some figures of genii, &c. In 1488 he went to Rome at the request of Pope Innocent VIII., to paint the frescoes in the chapel of the Belvedere in the Vatican; the marquis of Mantua (Federigo) created him a cavaliere before his departure.
Here was what seems to have been the basement of a very large hall or " Megaron," approached directly from the central court, and near this were found further reliefs, fresco representations of scenes of the bull-ring with female as well as male toreadors, and remains of a magnificent gaming-board of gold-plated ivory with intarsia work of crystal plaques set on silver plates and blue enamel (cyanus).
This gives access to a whole series of halls and private rooms (halls " of the Colonnades," " of the Double Axes," " Queen's Megaron" with bath-room attached and remains of the fish fresco, " Treasury " with ivory figures and other objects of art), together with extensive remains of an upper storey.
The atrium has a fresco by Bartolo di Fredi and the two ground-floor halls contain a Coronation of the Virgin by Sano di Pietro and a splendid Resurrection by Sodoma.
The same painter produced a fresco at Lyndhurst Church, Hants.
- Gypsum Throne (Fresco Painting Visible On Wall) (Cnossus).
- Architectural features, such as columns, friezes and various mouldings; mural decoration, such as fresco-paintings, coloured reliefs and mosaic inlay.
The same may be said of fresco-painting, and probably of metal work.
The fresco-paintings, ceramic motives, reliefs, free sculpture and toreutic handiwork of Crete have supplied the clearest proof of it, confirming the impression already created by the goldsmiths' and painters' work of the Greek mainland (Mycenae, Vaphio, Tiryns).
That of painting in fresco, for instance, shows the same orderly development from at any rate Period II.
8.-FAï¿½DE OF Small Temples, Completed From A Fresco Painting, Cnossus.
A fragmentary fresco taken from a tomb at Medum was desposited some years ago, though in a decaying condition, in the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo.
From a fresco at Beni-Hasan (c. 1700 B.C.).
It was valued chiefly on account of its brilliancy of tone and its inertness in opposition to sunlight, oil, and slaked lime (in fresco-painting).
Both the roof and the walls are almost universally coated with stucco and covered with fresco paintings - in the earlier works merely decorative, in the later always symbolical or historical.
A very curious fresco, found in the cemetery of Calixtus, preserved by the engravings of the earlier investigators (Bottari, torn.
- Fresco Ceiling.
- Fresco Ceiling.
With fresco paintings of different dates, in some cases lying one over the other.
Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.
- Part of a Fresco discovered at Phaestus.
As in Venice, many of the 16th-century palaces in Verona had stuccoed facades, richly decorated with large fresco paintings, often by very able painters.
The only other existing fresco by Pisanello is an Annunciation in S.
The principal village within the forest is Lyndhurst (pop. 2167 in 1901); its church contains a fresco by Lord Leighton, and here is held the verderers' court, which since 1887 has had charge of the crown portion of the forest.
To commemorate his Sicilian victory, he caused it to be pictorially represented on the wall of the Curia Hostilia, the first example of an historical fresco at Rome.
The municipal art gallery contains an altar-piece by Girolamo da Treviso (who also painted a fresco in the Chiesa della Commenda), a wooden St Jerome by Donatello, and a bust of the young St John by Antonio Rossellino (?), and some fine specimens of majolica, a variety of which, faience, takes its name from the town.
Of the fresco and stucco decorations of the walls and ceilings, less is naturally preserved.
Domenico contains a good fresco (Madonna and saints) by Giovanni Santi, the father of Raphael.
It possesses a town hall, a grammar school (1576), and a Martyr's Memorial HallThe most noteworthy building, however, is the parish church, restored in 1863, which contains a curious old fresco and several interesting brasses, and has a Norman tower.
Most of the interior walls of the caves were covered with fresco paintings, of a considerable degree of merit, and somewhat in the style of the early Italian painters.
In the same building there is also a picture gallery, in which is Raphael's cartoon for his fresco the "School of Athens" in the Vatican.
The church of the mother parish of South Bersted is Norman and Early English, and retains a fresco of the 16th century.
Some fine examples, such as the geese from Mdflm, show that such work kept pace with the reliefs; but most of the fresco-work has perished, and there are few instances of line drawing.
The 13th-century church of San Biagio (Blaise) has a remarkable 14th-century fresco, while the collegiate church of San Stefano dates from the 16th century.
His first works executed in fresco were probably those, now destroyed, which he painted in the convent of S.
Tradition ascribes to Leonardo an attractive fresco of a Madonna with a donor in the convent of St Onofrio, but this seems to be clearly the work of Boltraffio.
Masterpiece, erected for Frederick Gonzaga in .1523-1535; of the numerous fresco-covered chambers which it contains, perhaps the most celebrated is the Sala dei Giganti, where, by a combination of mechanical with artistic devices, the rout of the Titans still contending with artillery of uptorn rocks against the pursuit and thunderbolts of Jove appears to rush downwards on the spectator.
These forms are more agreeable to the fancy and imagination than fresco paintings or other the most expensive furniture.
The miracle forms the subject of a celebrated fresco by Raphael in the Vatican.
The superstructure of a similar gate (Porta Marzia), which was removed in 1540 to make way for the citadel, but is depicted in a fresco by Benedetto Bonfigli (between 1461 and 1 477), was re-erected in the substruction walls of the citadel itself.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall.
Santa Chiara (14th century) is interesting for a fresco ascribed to Giotto (at one time there were many more), and monuments to Robert the Wise, his queen Mary of Valois and his daughter Mary, empress of Constantinople.