For years the standard freight cars have held 60,000 lb and now many carry 80,000 lb or 100,000 lb; a few coal cars have even been built to contain 200,000 lb.
Cloquet is served by the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, the Duluth & North-Eastern, and (for freight only) the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways.
The second decision grew out of the attempt of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers to prevent other roads from accepting freight from the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North Michigan railroad, against which a "legal" strike had been declared.
Arthur, chief of the Brotherhood, a party, and called Rule 1 2, forbidding engineers to haul the freight, criminal.
Of the total train mileage in America more than half is freight; in Great Britain much more than half is passenger.
British railways also undertake the collection and delivery of freight, in addition to transporting it, and thus an extensive range of vans and wagons, whether drawn by horses or mechanically propelled, must be provided in connexion with an important station.
- Automatic Coupling for Freight Cars (U.S.A.).
Parkersburg is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, and the Little Kanawha railways, by electric railway to Marietta, Ohio, and by passenger and freight boats to Pittsburg, Cincinnati, intermediate ports, and ports on the Little Kanawha.
The number of locomotives increased 12,407, or 35%, and the number of freight cars, 545,222, or 42%.
Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
So much of the expense of the handling, both of freight and of passengers, was independent of the length of the journey that a mileage rate sufficiently large for short distances was unnecessarily burdensome for long ones, and was bound to destroy long-distance traffic, if the theory were consistently applied.
In America, also, freight trains are fitted with an automatic continuous brake, whereas in the United Kingdom this appliance is required by law only in the case of passenger trains, and in fact is not fitted to goods and mineral trains except in a few isolated instances.
This demand has in many instances led to ill-considered legislation, has frequently ignored the prerogatives and even the existence of the state commissions, and has brought about the passage by state legislatures of maximum freight and passenger rate laws, with rates so low in many cases that they have been set aside by the courts as unconstitutional.
The item " passengers killed " includes those on some electric railways, which presumably are not covered in the statement here given; also passengers in freight trains, &c. Under `' employees " this table includes men in shops, &c., not shown in Table XIV.
Henderson recording the tests of a freight locomotive made on the Chicago & North-Western railway.
In addition the increased size of the American freight car has diminished the interest on the first cost and the expenses of maintenance relatively to the work done; it has diminished to some extent the amount.
The animals which are shipped in this way are necessarily of the best quality, because the freight on a superior beast is no more costly than on an inferior one, and the proportion of freight to sale price is therefore less.
It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Pennsylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines connecting with the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, and with cities along the James river; by ferry, connecting with Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to Hampton and (1 2 m.) to Newport News.
Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight differentials.
It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River railway, and by passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Hudson river.
Long, connecting the several railways and carrying more than 1,000,000 freight cars annually; and an extensive electric street railway system, with more than 150 m.
Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
This law, however, did not serve in practice to secure so general a use of power brakes on freight trains as was thought desirable, and another act was passed in 1903 to give the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to prescribe what should be the minimum number of power-braked cars in each train.
This minimum was at first fixed at 50%, but on and after the 1st of August 1906 it was raised to 75%, with the result that soon after that date practically all the rolling stock of American railways, whether passenger or freight, was provided with compressed air brakes.
With Fisk in August 1869 he began to buy gold in a daring attempt to "corner" the market, his hope being that, with the advance in price of gold, wheat would advance to such a price that western farmers would sell, and there would be a consequent great movement of breadstuffs from West to East, which would result in increased freight business for the Erie road.
A state railway commission, whose members are elected by the people, has power to enforce its schedule of freight rates except when such rates would not pay the operating expenses of the railway.
The work done includes a concrete dock, mechanically equipped to convey freight between river and railways.
For transportation the North Saskatchewan is to some extent depended on for carrying freight by steamboats, but railways are widespread in the province.
In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.