The thirteen lords were assisted by twelve other inhabitants chosen by the freeholders, and when the number of lords was reduced to six, seven others were chosen from the assistants.
Promulgated a provisional ukaz permitting the peasants to become freeholders of allotments made at the time of emancipation, all redemption dues being remitted.
Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.
The ordinary burgesses consisted of the freeholders and the master-workmen of the gilds.
So far as state and national elections are concerned, the privilege was extended to native non-freeholders by the constitution of 1842, to naturalized foreigners who had served in the Civil War by an amendment of the 7th of April 1886, and to all adult male citizens by the amendment of the 4th of April 1888.
The suffrage was extended to non-freeholders, but only to those of American birth.
The theory of the indefeasible supremacy of the freeholders of England, whose delegates merely, according to this theory, the Commons were, was one of Defoe's favourite political tenets, and he returned to it in a powerfully written tract entitled The Original Power of the Collective Bcdy of the People of England examined and asserted (1701).
Its democratic constitution, which seems to have been entirely congenial to the population of small freeholders, and its ambition to gain control over the Alpheus watershed and both the Arcadian high roads to the isthmus, frequently estranged Mantineia from Sparta and threw it into the arms of Argos.
Bossiney acquired the right of electing two members of parliament in 1553, the franchise being originally vested in the freeholders within the borough.
This code was based largely on the laws of New England, and, although a source of popular discontent, it gave to the freeholders of each town a voice in the government of their town by permitting them to elect a board of eight overseers which chose a constable and sat as a court for the trial of small causes.
The first, styled a charter of liberties and privileges, required that an assembly elected by the freeholders and freemen should be called at least once every three years; vested all legislative authority in the governor, council and assembly; forbade the imposition of any taxes without the consent of the assembly; and provided for religious liberty and trial by jury.
The Clintons were most popular among the independent freeholders; the Livingstons had increased their influence by numerous marriage alliances with landed families; and the Schuylers had General Philip Schuyler and Alexander Hamilton, his son-in-law.
In the first place the plebeians gained full rights of ownership and transfer, and could thus become freeholders of the land which they occupied and of the appurtenances of this land (res mancipi) .
There is also a class of cottar freeholders (junster).
In 1459 Ralph, Lord Greystock, is said to have granted a charter, no longer extant, to his tenants in the manor, and in 1674 the freeholders, "borough-holders" and copyholders, of Wem brought an action against Daniel Wicherley, then lord of the manor, for the establishment of customs and privileges chiefly connected with the tenure of their lands and tenements, which was decided in their favour.
Beneath the freeholders and noblesse were free tenants, farmers paying rents, mainly in kind, and in services of labour and of war.
The term Iota communitas, " the whole community," appears to denote all freeholders of gentle birth, who might be present at any important assembly for the discussion of national affairs.
When Governor Andros and his Council in 1687 issued an order for levying a tax, a special town meeting of Ipswich promptly voted "that the s'd act doth infringe their Liberty as Free borne English subjects of His Majestic by interfearing with ye statutory Laws of the Land, By which it is enacted that no taxes shall be levied on ye Subjects without consent of an assembly chosen by ye Freeholders for assessing the same," and refused to assess the tax.
Whenever Ion freeholders request it, the county commissioners must submit to the voters of a proposed high school district the question of establishing a high school district, and each precinct giving a majority vote for it constitutes a part of such a district for establishing and maintaining a high school.
The Ancient Court of Verderers was also revived, consisting of an hereditary lord warden together with four verderers elected by freeholders of the county.
Although there were already fifteen banks in the state in 1837 yet the cry against monopoly was loud, and so in that year a general banking law was passed whereby any ten or more freeholders might establish a bank with a capital of not less than fifty thousand nor more than three hundred thousand dollars and begin business as soon as 30% of the capital was paid in in specie.
A very liberal frame of government for West Jersey, drafted presumably by William Penn, and entitled " the Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of West Jersey in America," was adopted in March 1677.
The great majority, 80% in 1905, of occupiers are freeholders; the practice of renting farm' lands is not followed to any considerable extent, except in the dairying lands on the coast district.
In the first distribution, which took place almost immediately after the law was passed 280,000 families in Walachia and about 127,000 in Moldavia became freeholders, holding nearly 4 million acres or one-third of the cultivated area of the country.
They were small freeholders, but all the property except the cottage had been lost in the time of Bunyan's grandfather.
The swainmote, held three times in the year, is the court to which all the freeholders within the forest owe suit and service, and of which the verderers are the judges.
The verderer was a judicial officer chosen in full county by the freeholders in the same manner as the coroner.
The county voters were the freeholders; but in the towns, with some important exceptions, the electors were the richer inhabitants who formed the corporations of the boroughs, or a body of select householders more or less under the control of some neighboring landowner.
The Commons did, and when the House imprisoned the gentlemen deputed by the freeholders of Kent to present a petition asking that its loyal addresses might be turned into bills of supply, it simply advertised its weakness to the whole country.
Unhappily the opposition, united in the desire to conciliate A,-ns.~~,, livicle(l on niiest ions of homp, nc,licv, (Thstliam would have met the new danger by parliamentary reform, giving increased voting power to the freeholders of the counties.
The increasing weight of taxation gave rise in 1780 to a great meeting of the freeholders of Yorkshire, which in turn gave the signal for a general agitation for the reduction of unnecessary expense in the government.
He was active in urging petitions from the freeholders of the counties, protesting against the unconstitutional invasion of the right of election.
As a result of the rebellion of 1173-1174 it was provided that an oath of fealty should be taken by all, to wit, barons, knights, freeholders and even villeins (rustici)", and that any one who refused should be arrested as the king's enemy, and the justices were to see that the castles whose demolition had been ordered were completely razed.
Freeholders, and other factors have combined to form a story which makes painful reading from whatever point of view, social or political, it be regarded.
Only Protestant freeholders had votes, which encouraged leases for lives, about the worst kind of tenure, and the object of each proprietor was to control as many votes as possible.
The old courtier Maurepas, jealous of Turgot and desirous of remaining a minister himself, refrained from defending his colleague; and when Turgot, who never knew how to give in, spoke of establishing assemblies of freeholders in the communes and the provinces, in order to relax the tension of over-centralization, Louis XVI., who never dared to pass from sentiment to action, sacrificed his minister to the rancour of the queen, as he had already sacrificed Malesherbes (1776).
Elizabeth in 1580 confirmed all previous charters and incorporated the freeholders under the designation of "the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of the borough of Tenby."