It is served by the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railway, and is a favourite resort from Richmond.
He took part in the siege of Yorktown, the battle of Fair Oaks, the seven days' battle before Richmond, and the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, where he was wounded, and Chancellorsville, where his brigade was reduced in numbers to less than a regiment, and General Meagher resigned his commission.
Richmond is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railways, and by the Old Dominion, the Virginia Navigation and the Chesapeake steamship lines.
On retiring from Congress he began the practice of law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, was chosen a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787, and in 1788 was a member of the state convention which ratified for Virginia the Federal constitution.
At Fredericksburg he and his division won great distinction by their attack on the position held by Jackson's corps, and Meade was promoted majorgeneral of volunteers, to date from the 29th of November.
Corps, and at the battle of Fredericksburg he distinguished himself greatly in the last attack of Marye's heights.
And in July 1863 colonel U.S.A. At Fredericksburg he commanded the V.
In the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, Hancock's division was on the right among the troops that were ordered to storm Marye's Heights.
At the Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, he rendered further good service, and at Gettysburg his handling of the artillery was conspicuous in the repulse of Pickett's charge, and he was rewarded with the brevet of colonel.
He took part with distinction in the battle of Fredericksburg, and in 1863 as a majorgeneral commanded the III.
He was, however, employed to the end of the war, and in 1867 received the brevets of brigadier-general U.S.A. and major-general U.S.A. for his services at Fredericksburg and Gettysburg respectively.
He began his campaign by cancelling McClellan's operation, and, his own plan being to strike at Richmond from Fredericksburg, he moved the now augmented army to Falmouth opposite that place, hoping to surprise the crossing of the Rappahannock.
When Burnside fought his battle of Fredericksburg (q.v.) an appalling reverse was the result, the more terrible as it was absolutely useless (December 13).
- Chickasaw Bayou and Fredericksburg ended the Federal initiative in the west and the east; the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans alone could claim a victory.
Lee still held the battlefield of Fredericksburg and had not attempted the offensive, and in April he was much weakened by thedetachmentof Longstreet's corps to a minor theatre of operations.
P. Hill and Ewell (who were now Lee's corps commanders) were at one time scattered from Strasburg in the Valley to Fredericksburg, and Hooker earnestly begged to be allowed to attack them in detail.
The attack of the Federals failed utterly; not even Fredericksburg was so disastrous a defeat.
Meagher, the leader of the "Irish brigade" at Fredericksburg, was the young orator of the "United Irishmen."
At Fredericksburg his wing of Lee's line of battle was heavily engaged, and his last battle, before Chancellorsville, in the thickets of the Wilderness, was his greatest triumph.
Virginia at the moment presented a clear field to the British, and they overran the state as far north as Fredericksburg and west to Charlottesville.
Corps in the Fredericksburg campaign; and was promoted, in November 1862, to be major-general of volunteers.
He was a teacher at Swanzey, New Hampshire, and at the Leicester Academy, Massachusetts, in 1845-1847, and attempted the philological method of teaching English "like Latin and Greek," later described in his Method of Philological Study of the English Language (1865); at Amherst in 1847-1849; at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1852-1855; and in 1855 became a tutor at Lafayette College, where he became adjunct professor of belles-lettres and English literature in 1856, and professor of English language and comparative philology - the first chair of the kind established - in 1857.
He served with distinction in the Peninsular campaign, and at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, where he received a wound which incapacitated him up to the opening of Grant's Virginia campaign of 1864.
Connexion between Richmond and Washington is by a union line (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac and Washington Southern railways) operated jointly by the Southern, Atlantic Coast line, Seaboard Air line, Chesapeake & Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore & Ohio railways.
Fredericksburg at the head of navigation on the Rappahannock and West Point on the York have traffic of commercial importance in lumber and timber, oysters and farm produce, cotton and tobacco especially being shipped in coastwise vessels from West Point.
In 1908 the General Assembly made an appropriation for establishing two state normal and industrial schools for women, one at Harrisonburg and the other at Fredericksburg, both under a board of trustees consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and ten other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate.
Other institutions of higher learning which are not under state control are: Washington and Lee University (nonsectarian, 1749), at Lexington; Hampden-Sidney College (Presbyterian, 1776), at Hampden-Sidney; Richmond College (Baptist, 1832), at Richmond; Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, 1832), at Ashland; Emory and Henry College (Methodist Episcopal, 1838), at Emory; Roanoke College (Lutheran, 1853), at Salem; Bridgewater College (German Baptist, 1879), at Bridgewater; Fredericksburg College (Presbyterian, 1893), at Fredericksburg; Virginia Union University (Baptist, 1899), at Richmond; and Virginia Christian College (Christian, 1903), at Lynchburg.
Of the six great impacts made upon the Confederacy, four were upon Virginian soil: the first Manassas campaign (1861), the Peninsular battles (1862), second Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (1862-63) and the great Wilderness-Petersburg series of attacks (1864-65).
The principal battles were: the first Manassas, or Bull Run (July 21, 1861); those around Richmond (June 26-July 2, 1862); second Manassas (August 29-30); Fredericksburg (December 12, 1862); Mechanicsville (May 2 and 3, 186 3); the Wilderness (May 5 and 6); Spottsylvania (May 8); North Anna and Bethesda church (May 29-30); Cold Harbor (June 3); the battles around Petersburg (June 15, July 30 and November 1, 1864); and Five Forks (April 1) and Appomattox (April 8-9, 1865).
Lawrence inherited the estate at Hunting Creek, on the Potomac,_ later known as Mount Vernon, and George the estate on the Rappahannock, nearly opposite Fredericksburg, where his father usually lived.
From 1847 to 1850 he was a missionary at Allahabad, India, and was then pastor of churches successively at Lower West Nottingham, Maryland (1851-1855) at Fredericksburg, Virginia (1855-1861), and at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania (1861-1864).
A year afterwards Fort Pitt was occupied by a company of Virginia soldiers by order of the Virginia Provincial Convention (assembled at Williamsburg in August 1775), but this move apparently was more for the defence of the frontier in the coming war than an expression on the Pennsylvania-Virginia boundary dispute; and, in November, Connolly was arrested at Fredericksburg, Maryland, on the charge of furthering Dunmore's plans for invading the western frontier.
MATTHEW FONTAINE MAURY (1806-1873), American naval officer and hydrographer, was born near Fredericksburg in Spottsylvania county, Virginia, on the 24th of January, .1806.