The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."
Frazer formerly held Virbius to be a wood and tree spirit, to whom horses, in which form tree spirits were often represented, were offered in sacrifice.
Frazer, Early History of the Kingship (1905); E.
- On the Prytaneum as the centre of an ancient state see article Fire, and references in a paper (s.v.) by Frazer (Journal of Philology, 1885, xiv.
Frazer, " The Beginnings of Religion and Totemism among the Australian Aborigines," Fortnightly Review, July 1905; N.
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
Frazer has put forward the view that while the sacrifice of the god may have been piacular, it was also intended to preserve his divine life against the inroads of old age.
(c) Human representatives of the corn or vegetation spirits are killed; in these, as in other cases of the sacrifice of the man-god cited by Dr Frazer, the killing of the old god is at the same time the making of a new god.
For America see the works of Frazer and Westermarck and the references there given.
Frazer takes the epithet to mean " bearer of the sacred objects deposited on the altar "; L.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1907), p. 67: " Prophecy of the Hebrew type has not been limited to Israel; it is indeed a phenomenon of almost world-wide occurrence; in many lands and in many ages the wild, whirling words of frenzied men and women have been accepted as the utterances of an in-dwelling deity.
' It finds a parallel in the fate of the heralds of Orchomenus (Frazer, Pausan.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (London, 1906).
Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
Frazer maintains the hitherto current theory that the earlier temple of Athena and Erechtheus was on the site of the Erechtheum; that the Erechtheum inherited the name apXa ios veclis from its predecessor, and that the " opisthodomos " in which the treasures were kept was the west chamber of the Parthenon; Furtwangler and Milchh6fer hold the strange view that the " opisthodomos " was a separate building at the east end of the Acropolis, while Penrose thinks the building discovered by Dorpfeld was possibly the Cecropeum.
Frazer, Pausanias (translation and commentary; 6 vols., London, 1898.
Frazer, Letters during the Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns (ed.
Others have regarded it as an empty portable throne, 2 or as a receptacle for sacred serpents (analogies in Frazer, Pausanias, iv.
It is enough to decide that the ark represented in some way or other the presence of Yahweh and that the safety of his followers depended upon its security (analogies in Frazer, Paus.
Frazer, Pausanias, iv.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis and Osiris (2nd ed.), pp. 428-435.
Frazer, Anthrop. Essays to E.
See Chadwick 33, 35; Frazer, Lectures, 225; and Hartland ii.
Frazer, Adonis, &c., 2nd ed.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (London, 1906); Joseph Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, bk.
Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece, iii.
As an example of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of the animistic pantheon, "they are restricted in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names are general, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are current as to their origin, life and character."
The largest and most noteworthy are Burnet park (about 100 acres), on high land in the western part of the city, Lincoln park, occupying a heavily wooded ridge in the east, and Schiller, Kirk and Frazer parks.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906).
Frazer, Adonis, Allis and Osiris (London, 1907), pp. 12 sqq., 401.
Frazer, op. cit., p. 71, &c.; H.
Frazer, Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship, p. 247; Macbain's edition, 1902, of Skene's Highlanders of Scotland).
"SIR JAMES GEORGE FRAZER (1854-), British anthropologist, was born at Glasgow, Jan.
Frazer suggests (loc. cit.
The 6 See Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, 44 seq.
Another horrible sacrifice was regularly demanded by Phoenician religion: women sacrificed their virginity at the shrines of Astarte in the belief that they thus propitiated the goddess and won her favour (Frazer, ibid.
Frazer, who have made direct measurements of osmotic pressure of solution of cane-sugar, have also measured the freezing points of corresponding solutions.