The connexion of " Lesser Armenia " with the Western powers led to the formation, 1335, of an Armenian fraternity, " the Unionists," which adopted the dogmas of the Roman church, and at the council of Florence 1 was Ro man > 439 Ca tholics.
The clauses of the will governing the distribution of these prizes are as follows: " The entire sum shall be divided into five equal parts, one to go to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or invention in the domain of physical science; another to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or introduced the greatest improvement in chemistry; the third to the author of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or medicine; the fourth to the man who shall have produced the most remarkable work of an idealistic nature; and, finally, the fifth to the man who shall have done the most or best work for the fraternity of nations, the suppression or reduction of standing armies, and the formation and propagation of peace congresses.
Among a number of almshouses are some bearing the name of Queen Elizabeth, endowed in 1562 out of the revenues of a dissolved fraternity of St Mary.
Jacopo Niccolini, one of a religious fraternity dedicated to consoling the last hours of condemned men, remained with him.
This latter aspect of the fraternity was to be satisfied by the contribution from each fellow of five dollars by way of initiation fee.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
As has already been intimated, however, many artisans probably belonged both to their own craft fraternity and to the gild merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen and their societies.
According to the Thuggee and Dacoity Report for 1879, the number of registered Punjabi and Hindustani Thugs then still amounted to 344; but all of these had already been registered as such before 1852, and the whole fraternity may now be considered as extinct.
In 1892 he founded the clerical fraternity known as the Community of the Resurrection.
In 1795, as grandmaster of the Masonic fraternity, he laid the cornerstone of the new State House in Boston, and in this year also founded the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, becoming its first president.
The religious element was more prominent in Orcy's gild at Abbotsbury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their ordinances exhibit much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls.
The most remarkable, perhaps, of his foundations was the fraternity of the Oblates, a society whose members were pledged to give aid to the church when and where it might be required.
Himself became a member of the fraternity of Linen Armourers, or Merchant Taylors, and other distinguished persons followed his example.
The Denominational.-The course of denominational work may be seen in the way in which the London Society and the American Board were gradually left to the Congregationalists, it being recognized that while fraternity was maintained, the widest results could only be obtained as appeal was made directly to the members of each separate denomination.
The earliest authenticated mention of the Thugs is found in the following passage of Ziau-d din Barni's History of Firoz Shah (written about 1356): "In the reign of that sultan," that is, about 1290, "some Thugs were taken in Delhi, and a man belonging to that fraternity was the means of about a thousand being captured.
The Mithraic community of worshippers, besides being a spiritual fraternity, was a legal corporation enjoying the right of holding property, with temporal officials at its head, like any other sodalitas: there were the decuriones and decem primi, governing councils resembling assembly and senate in cities; magistri, annually elected presidents; curatores, financial agents; defensores, advocates; and patroni, protectors among the influential.
In some towns all the crafts were thus consolidated into a single fraternity; in this case a body was reproduced which regulated the whole trade monopoly of the borough, and hence bore some resemblance to the old gild merchant.
The fraternity of White Penitents buried the body with great ceremony, and performed a solemn service for the deceased as a martyr; the Franciscans followed their example; and these formalities led to the popular belief in the guilt of the unhappy family.
Some recommended marriage, others enlistment as a soldier in the civil wars; one "ancient priest" bade him take tobacco and sing psalms; another of the same fraternity, "in high account," advised physic and blood-letting.
He hoped, by organizing a fraternity of armed laymen as pioneers, to restore fertility to the Sahara; but this community did not succeed, and was dissolved before his death.
Such a fraternity was commonly called a "mistery" or "company" in the 15th and 16th centuries, though the old term "gild" was not yet obsolete.
Hence arose the powerful fraternity of the "Umiliati," who established their headquarters at the Brera, and began to develop the wool trade, and subsequently gave the first impetus to the production of silk.
The most important of these was the fraternity of the Hospitale hierosolymitanum, founded between 1065 and 1075; for hence arose the order of St John, the earliest of the orders of knighthood.
In Paris, after 1419, there existed a special hospice for the "fraternity of St James," in which from 60 to 80 pilgrims were received each day, fed, and presented with a quarter of a denarius (Dulaure, Hist.
According to the legends which grew up under the care of the monks, the first church of Glastonbury was a little wattled building erected by Joseph of Arimathea as the leader of the twelve apostles sent over to Britain from Gaul by St Philip. About a hundred years later, according to the same authorities, the two missionaries, Phaganus and Deruvianus, who came to king Lucius from Pope Eleutherius, established a fraternity of anchorites on the spot, and after three hundred years more St Patrick introduced among them a regular monastic life.
Here and there Fenelon carries his philanthropy to lengths curiously prophetic of the age of Rousseau - fervid denunciation of war, belief in nature and fraternity of nations.
The increasing number of her adherents, and her inexperience of government on such a vast and complicated scale, obliged her to comply with political necessity and to adopt the system of the state and its social customs. The Church was no longer a fraternity, on a footing of equality, with freedom of belief and tentative as to dogma, but an authoritative aristocratic hierarchy.
In St Paul, as in the Apostles, he shows his concern with the larger social life, his sense of fraternity, and a revival of the democratic sentiment which had inspired L'Avenir de la science.
On the other hand, the genuine Orphics, a fraternity of religious ascetics, found unscrupulous imitators and impostors, who.
While in most towns the name and the old organization of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole municipal corporation.
Crowninshield (1772-1851), a member of the national House of Representatives in1824-1831and Secretary of the Navy in 1814; the Bertram Home for Aged Men (1877) in a house built in 1806-1807; the Plummer Farm School for Boys (incorporated 1855, opened 1870), another charity of Caroline Plummer, on Winter Island; the City Almshouse (1816) and the City Insane Asylum (1884) on Salem Neck; a home for girls (1876); the Fraternity (1869), a club-house for boys; the Marine Society Bethel and the Salem Seamen's Bethel; the Seamen's Orphan and Children's Friend Society (1839); an Associated Charities (1901), and the Salem Hospital (1873).
South-west at the desert end of the Wadi Ghir is the oasis and town of Temacin (pop. 2120), one of the chief centres of the Mussulman fraternity of Tidianes.
Thus with every creation of a craft fraternity the gild merchant was weakened and its sphere of activity was diminished, though the new bodies were subsidiary to the older and larger fraternity.
Morgan Library; Williston Hall, containing the Mather Art Museum, the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association, and several lecture-rooms; Walker Hall, with college offices and lecture-rooms; Hitchcock Hall; Barrett Hall (1859), the first college gymnasium built in the United States, now used as a lecture hall; the Pratt Gymnasium and Natatorium and the Pratt Health Cottage, whose donors also gave to the college the Pratt Field; an astronomical observatory; and the two dormitories, North College and South College, supplemented by several fraternity houses.
The Van Rensselaer manor-house, built in 1765, was pulled down in 1893 and was reconstructed on the campus of Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, where it is used as a fraternity club-house.