About 1259 these fraternities were distributed over the greater part of northern Italy.
Their fraternities or societies may be divided into three classes: religious or benevolent, merchant and craft gilds.
The laws of Ine speak of gegildan who help each other pay the wergeld, but it is not entirely certain that they were members of gild fraternities in the later sense.
To the first half of that century belong the statutes of the fraternities of Cambridge, Abbotsbury and Exeter.
- The merchant and craft fraternities are particularly interesting to students of economic and municipal history.
Historians have expressed divergent views regarding the early relations of the craftsmen and their fraternities to the gild merchant.
The gild merchant did not give birth to craft fraternities or have anything to do with their origin; nor did it delegate its authority to them.
In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.
In some towns the victory of the artisans in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic constitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis.
Two new kinds of craft fraternities appear in the 14th century and become more prominent in the 15th, namely, the merchants' and the journeymen's companies.
In the 14th century the journeymen or yeomen began to set up fraternities in defence of their rights.
In England the fraternities of journeymen, after struggling a while for complete independence, seem to have fallen under the supervision and control of the masters' gilds; in other words, they became subsidiary or affiliated organs of the older craft fraternities.
Several fraternities - old gilds or new companies, with their respective cognate or heterogeneous branches of industry and trade - were fused into one body.
The craft fraternities were not suppressed by the statute of 1 547 (1 Edward VI.).
In fact, many craft fraternities still survived in the second half of the r8th century, but their usefulness had disappeared.
The privileges of the old fraternities were not formally abolished until 1835; and the substantial remains or spectral forms of some are still visible in other towns besides London.
About the year 1337 this hesychasm, which is obviously related to certain well-known forms of Oriental mysticism, attracted the attention of the learned and versatile Barlaam, a Calabrian monk, who at that time held the office of abbot in the Basilian monastery of St Saviour's in Constantinople, and who had visited the fraternities of Mount Athos on a tour of inspection.
Of the existence of any regularly constituted companionships of the first kind there is no trustworthy evidence until between two and three centuries after fraternities of the second kind had been organized.
From a very early stage in the development of chivalry, however, we meet with the singular institution of brotherhood in arms; and from it the ultimate origin if not of the religious fraternities at any rate of the military companionships is usually derived.
Co.) Orders Of Knighthood When orders ceased to be fraternities and became more and more marks of favour and a means of recognizing meritorious 1 Lecoy de la Marche (Chaire francaise au moyen age, 2nd ed., p. 387) gives many instances to prove that " al chevalerie, au xiii e siècle, est déjà sur son declin."
He extended his reforms to the collegiate churches (even to the fraternities of penitents and particularly that of St John the Baptist), and to the monasteries.
Service in the hospices was regularly performed by the hospital-fraternities - that is to say, by lay associations working under the authorization of the Church.
The trading fraternities assumed generally the character of corporations in the reign of Edward III.