King Antigonus is said to have had a branch of the true frankincense tree sent to him.
2), there is only one phoenix at a time, and he, at the close of his long life, builds himself a nest with twigs of cassia and frankincense, on which he dies; from his corpse is generated a worm which grows into the young phoenix.
In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.
35, "a confection after the art of the apothecary," or rather "a perfume after the art of the perfumer," which was to be regarded as most holy, and the imitation of which was prohibited under the severest penalties, was compounded of four "sweet scents" (sammim),3 namely stacte (nataph), onycha (sheheleth), galbanum (helbenah) and "pure" or "fine" frankincense (lebonah zaccah), pounded together in equal proportions, with (perhaps) an admixture of salt (memullah).
183), frankincense to the amount of 1000 talents' weight was offered every year, during the feast of Bel, on the great altar of his temple in Babylon.
The Indian frankincense tree, Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke (which certainly includes glabra, Roxburgh), is a doubtful native of India.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
Gold, with myrrh and frankincense were offered by the Persian Magi to the infant Jesus at his birth; and in Revelation viii.
The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.
The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.
Luban, frankincense, the first syllable being dropped in Romanic as if it were the article), a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin, a tree of considerable size, native to Sumatra and Java, and from other species of Styrax.
The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
63) that frankincense was collected at Sabota (the capital of Hadramut; inscr.
A variety of spices - the wealth of the land - are named on these altars, as rand, ladanum, costus, tarum, &c. Frankincense appears as luban, and there are other names not yet understood.
On the Dhafar coast in1894-1895he visited ruins which he identified with the Abyssapolis of the frankincense merchants.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
14), and the tithe of frankincense paid in Arabia to the god Sabis (Pliny, H.N.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
Is the oasis of Jauf, a hollow or depression, as its name signifies, containing many villages, and of great antiquarian interest as the central point of the old Minaean and Sabaean kingdoms, known to the ancients from the earliest historical times through their control of the frankincense trade of S.
FRANKINCENSE,' or Olibanum 2 (Gr.
(Etymologicon linguae Anglicanae, Lond., 1671), gives the derivation: " Frankincense, Thus, q.d.
Carterii, the " Yegaar," " Mohr Add," and " Mohr Madow " of the Somali country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the " Maghrayt d'Sheehaz " of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which are sources of true frankincense or olibanum.
To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in.
2 In the interior of the country about the plain of Dhofar, 3 during the south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the development of trade.
Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab), 4 described by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations.
The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frankincense was a product of India, would seem to have originated in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous substances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with the native products of India.
158), as true frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its softness, and tendency to melt into a mass' (Birdwood, loc. cit., p. 146).
Bernhard von Breydenbach, 8 Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage en Perse, &c., 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania.
Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in commerce in semiopaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their friction against one another.
Frankincense burns with a bright white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate,.
9 Good frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size,.
That which occurs in globular drops is, he says, termed " male frankincense "; the most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops,.
10 The best frankincense, as we learn from Arrian," was formerly exported from the neighbourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and A.
That the African frankincense, called by the Arabs " asli," is of twice the value of the Arabian " luban."
Miles (loc. cit., p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known to the Somali as " bedwi " or " sheheri," comes from the trees.
9 See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, Ann.
One of the Chinese names for frankincense, Ju-hiang, " milk-perfume," is explained by the Pen Ts'au (xxxiv.
Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond., 1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense - " Meaty," selling at $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less.
On the sacrificial use and import of frankincense and similar substances see Incense.
Even the "ground frankincense" or "ground pine" (Ajuga chamaepitys) was known to the Romans as Tus terrae (Pliny), although they called some plant, from its smelling like frankincense, Libanotis, and a kind of Thasian wine, also from its fragrance, Libanios.
The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of Pope Benedict IX.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).