Libanus, for frankincense, occurs only in the Vulgate.
Bernhard von Breydenbach, 8 Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage en Perse, &c., 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania.
They also melt frankincense as a depilatory, and smear their hands with a paste into the composition of which frankincense enters, for the purpose of communicating to them an attractive perfume.
That the African frankincense, called by the Arabs " asli," is of twice the value of the Arabian " luban."
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
King Antigonus is said to have had a branch of the true frankincense tree sent to him.
2), there is only one phoenix at a time, and he, at the close of his long life, builds himself a nest with twigs of cassia and frankincense, on which he dies; from his corpse is generated a worm which grows into the young phoenix.
To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in.
That which occurs in globular drops is, he says, termed " male frankincense "; the most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops,.
In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.
35, "a confection after the art of the apothecary," or rather "a perfume after the art of the perfumer," which was to be regarded as most holy, and the imitation of which was prohibited under the severest penalties, was compounded of four "sweet scents" (sammim),3 namely stacte (nataph), onycha (sheheleth), galbanum (helbenah) and "pure" or "fine" frankincense (lebonah zaccah), pounded together in equal proportions, with (perhaps) an admixture of salt (memullah).
183), frankincense to the amount of 1000 talents' weight was offered every year, during the feast of Bel, on the great altar of his temple in Babylon.
The Indian frankincense tree, Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke (which certainly includes glabra, Roxburgh), is a doubtful native of India.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
Gold, with myrrh and frankincense were offered by the Persian Magi to the infant Jesus at his birth; and in Revelation viii.
The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.
The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.
Luban, frankincense, the first syllable being dropped in Romanic as if it were the article), a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin, a tree of considerable size, native to Sumatra and Java, and from other species of Styrax.
The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
63) that frankincense was collected at Sabota (the capital of Hadramut; inscr.
A variety of spices - the wealth of the land - are named on these altars, as rand, ladanum, costus, tarum, &c. Frankincense appears as luban, and there are other names not yet understood.
On the Dhafar coast in1894-1895he visited ruins which he identified with the Abyssapolis of the frankincense merchants.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
14), and the tithe of frankincense paid in Arabia to the god Sabis (Pliny, H.N.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
Is the oasis of Jauf, a hollow or depression, as its name signifies, containing many villages, and of great antiquarian interest as the central point of the old Minaean and Sabaean kingdoms, known to the ancients from the earliest historical times through their control of the frankincense trade of S.
FRANKINCENSE,' or Olibanum 2 (Gr.
Carterii, the " Yegaar," " Mohr Add," and " Mohr Madow " of the Somali country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the " Maghrayt d'Sheehaz " of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which are sources of true frankincense or olibanum.
2 In the interior of the country about the plain of Dhofar, 3 during the south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the development of trade.
Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab), 4 described by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations.
The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frankincense was a product of India, would seem to have originated in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous substances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with the native products of India.
158), as true frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its softness, and tendency to melt into a mass' (Birdwood, loc. cit., p. 146).
Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in commerce in semiopaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their friction against one another.
10 The best frankincense, as we learn from Arrian," was formerly exported from the neighbourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and A.
Miles (loc. cit., p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known to the Somali as " bedwi " or " sheheri," comes from the trees.
9 See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, Ann.
One of the Chinese names for frankincense, Ju-hiang, " milk-perfume," is explained by the Pen Ts'au (xxxiv.
Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond., 1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense - " Meaty," selling at $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less.
Galbanum, myrrh, stacte, frankincense, calamus, cassia and cinnamon, were all of them used in perfumes, even the myrrh being probably the kind distinguished at the present time in the Bombay market as perfumed myrrh or bissabol, which still forms an ingredient of the joss sticks used as incense in the temples in China.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
The prevalent bush plants are khansa (umbrella mimosa), acacias, aloes, and, especially, Boswellia and Commiphora, which yield highly fragrant resins and balsams, such as myrrh, frankincense (olibanum) and " balm of Gilead."
The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of Pope Benedict IX.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
Ketzioth), the root of the Aucklandia Costus (Falconer), native of Kashmir; frankincense (Heb.
Shelheleth), the celebrated odoriferous shell of the ancients, the operculum or "nail" of a species of Strombus or "wing shell," formerly well known in Europe under the name of Blatta byzantina; it is still imported into Bombay to burn with frankincense and other incense to bring out their odours more strongly; saffron (Heb.
In embalming their dead the Egyptians filled the cavity of the belly with every sort of spicery except frankincense (Herod.
In the burntofferings of male kine to Isis, the carcase of the steer, after evisceration, was filled with fine bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh and other aromatics, and thus stuffed was roasted, being basted all the while by pouring over it large quantities of sweet oil, and then eaten with great festivity.
- lxvi.), in Jeremiah and in Chronicles, it represents the Hebrew lebonah, more usually rendered "frankincense"; elsewhere the original word is ketoreth (Ex.
Pure frankincense (lebonah) formed part of the meat-offering (Lev.
Frankincense, however, though the most common, never became the only kind of incense offered to the gods among the Greeks.
Latterly the use of frankincense ("mascula thura," Virg.
It is recommended that frankincense should enter as largely as possible into its composition, and that if inferior materials be employed at all they should not be allowed to preponderate.
Frankincense burns with a bright white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate,.
On the sacrificial use and import of frankincense and similar substances see Incense.
9 Good frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size,.