REGIOMONTANUS (1436-1476), German astronomer, was born at Konigsberg in Franconia on the 6th of June 1436.
He retained his influence during the whole of the reign of Louis; and on the king's death in 911 was prominent in securing the election of Conrad, duke of Franconia, to the vacant throne.
An offensive move into Franconia was under discussion, and for this purpose the Prussian staff had commenced a lateral concentration about Weimar, Jena and Naumburg when the storm burst upon them.
This country, north of the Main and the first residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into which Germany was divided in the Toth century - the duchy of Franconia (Franken).
This Franconia was in 843 included in the kingdom of Louis the German, and was then increased by the addition of the territories of Mainz, Spires and Worms, on the right bank of the river.
The break-up of the duchy of Franconia had increased the influence of the count palatine of the Rhine, and the importance of his position among the princes of the empire is shown by Roger of Hoveden, who, writing of the election to the German throne in 1198, singles out four princes as chief electors, among whom is the count palatine of the Rhine.
One of his sons, Henry, called margrave and duke in Franconia, fell fighting against the Normans in 886; another, Poppo, was margrave in Thuringia from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by the German king Arnulf.
From this time the Babenbergs lost their influence in Franconia; but in 976 Leopold, a member of the family who was a count in the Donnegau, is described as margrave of the East Mark, a district not more than 60 m.
This ceremony, according to the historian Widukind, was followed by a banquet at which the new king was waited upon by the dukes of Lorraine, Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia.
Otto soon showed his intention of breaking with the policy of his father, who had been content with a nominal superiority over the duchies; in 937 he punished Eberhard, duke of Franconia, for an alleged infringement of the royal authority; and in 938 deposed Eberhard, who had recently become duke of Bavaria.
Thankmar, aided by an influential Saxon noble named Wichmann, and by Eberhard of Franconia, seized the fortress of Eresburg and took Otto's brother Henry prisoner; but soon afterwards he was defeated by the king and killed whilst taking sanctuary.
Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
The deaths of Giselbert of Lorraine and of Eberhard of Franconia, quickly followed by those of two other dukes, enabled Otto to unite the stem-duchies more closely with the royal house.
In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
Franconia commenced with Nova litteraria, and Hesse with the Kurze Historie, both in 1725.
KULMBACH, or Culmbach, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian province of Upper Franconia, picturesquely situated on the Weisser Main, and the Munich-Bamberg-Hof railway, II m.
Dana in 1824 at Franconia in New Hampshire.
With lower Franconia, it now forms a district of the kingdom of Bavaria.
The duke and duchess of Kent had been living at Amorbach, in Franconia, owing to their straitened circumstances, but they returned to London on purpose that ?,heir child should be born in England.
His territories included Bavaria, where he made Regensburg the centre of his government, Thuringia, Franconia and Saxony.
The principal ranges, the Presidential, the Franconia and the Carter-Moriah, have a north-eastern and south-western trend.
The Presidential, in the north-eastern part of the region, is separated from the Franconia on the south-west by the Crawford, or White Mountain Notch, about 2000 ft.
On the Franconia, a much shorter range, are Mount Lafayette, 5269 ft.; Mount Lincoln, 5098 ft.; and four others exceeding 4000 ft.
Separating Franconia and Pemigewasset ranges is the romantic Franconia Notch, overlooking which from the upper cliffs of Profile Mountain is a remarkable human profile, The Great Stone Face, immortalized by Nathaniel Hawthorne; here, too, is the Franconia Flume, a narrow upright fissure, 60 ft.
JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1836-), German theologian, was born at Poxdorf in Upper Franconia on the 5th of May 1836, and was educated at Bamberg and at Munich, where in 1865 he was appointed professor extraordinary of theology.
Conrad's son Frederick inherited the duchy of Franconia which his father had received in 1115, and this was retained by the Hohenstaufen until the death of Duke Conrad II.
974), and Liutgard, who married Conrad II., duke of Franconia, and died in 955.
The district of Eger was in 870 included in the new margraviate of East Franconia, which belonged at first to the Babenbergs, but from 906 to the counts of Vohburg, who took the title of margraves of Eger.
The Main traverses the northern regions, or Upper and Lower Franconia, with a very winding course and greatly facilitates the trade of the provinces.
The districts of Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate are almost wholly Roman Catholic, while in the Rhine Palatinate, Upper Franconia, and especially Middle Franconia, the preponderance is on the side of the Protestants.
The level country, including both Lower Bavaria (extending northwards to the Danube) and the western and middle parts of Franconia, is productive of rye, oats, wheat, barley and millet, and also of hemp, flax, madder and fruit and vines.
Hops are extensively grown in central Franconia; tobacco (the best in Germany) round Nuremberg and in the Palatinate, which also largely produces the sugar-beet.
In Franconia are numerous paper-mills, and the manufacture of wooden toys is largely carried on in the forest districts of Upper Bavaria.
PAUL EBER (1511-1569), German theologian, was born at Kitzingen in Franconia, and was educated at Nuremberg and Wittenberg, where he became the close friend of Philip Melanchthon.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
The third division of Germany comprises the basin of the Danube and Franconia, where around Nuremberg, Bamberg and Wurzburg the population is thickly clustered.
The best meadow-lands of Bavaria are in the province of Franconia and in the outer range of the Alps, and those of Saxony in the Erzgebirge.
Deposits of less consequence are found in upper Bavaria, upper Franconia, Baden, the Harz and elsewhere.
These territories are bordered by a broad stretch of country on the north, where Protestantism has maintained its hold since the time of the Reformation, including Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle Franconia, the northern half of Wui-ttemberg and Baden, with Hesse and the Palatinate.
The basin of the Main is again Roman Catholic from Bamberg to Aschaffenburg (western upper Franconia and lower Franconia).
In the south-west the Alamanni occupied the territory afterwards called Swabia (q.v.), and extended along the middle Rhine until they met the Ripuarian Franks, then living in the northern part of the district which at a later period was called after them, Franconia (q.v.); and in the south-east were the Bavarians, although it was some time before their country came to be known as Bavaria (q.v.).
In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.
Accordingly the nobles assembled at Forchheim, and by the advice of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, Conrad of Franconia was chosen German king.
The nobles of Franconia acted upon the advice of their king, and the Saxons were very willing that their duke should rise to stIll higher honors.
The barbarians accepted hit terms, and faithfully kept their word in regard to Henrys own lands, although Bavaria, Swabia and Franconia they occasionally invaded as before.
He was joined by Eberhard, duke of Franconia, and it was only by the aid of the duke of Swabia, whom the duke of Franconia had offended, that the rising was put down.
This happened in 938, and in 939 a second rebellion, led by Ottos brother Henry, was supported by the duke of Franconia and by Giselbert, duke of Lorraine.
The duchy of Franconia he kept in his own hands, and in 944 he granted Lorraine to Conrad the Red, an energetic and honorable count, whom he still further attached to hims~elf by giving him his daughter for his wife.
Conrad the Red hurried from Italy and joined the rebels; in Swabia, in Bavaria, in Franconia and even in Saxony, the native land of the king, many sided with them.
Franconia was in the hands of Conrad himself; thus Saxony, Thuringia, Carinthia and Lorraine were the only duchies not completely dependent upon the king.
Relied upon the princes and the opponents of a united and the Germany; or, to make another division, Henrys anti- strength lay in the duchies of Franconia and Bavaria, kings.
The younger Frederick succeeded to this duchy in 1105, while ten years later Conrad was made duke of Franconia, a country which for nearly a century had been under the immediate government of the crown.
Henry was perhaps the I~ost powerful of the kings subjects, nevertheless the dukes of Swabia and Franconia withstood him, and a long war desolated South Germany.
Henry the Proud was confident that he would succeed Lothair, who had died on his return from Italy in December 1137; but, by a hasty and irregular election, Conrad of Hohen~~7irad staulen, duke of Franconia, was chosen king in March 1138.
But meanwhile the movement was spreading through Franconia to northern Germany and was especially formidable in Thuringia, where it was led by Thomas Munzer.
Having quickly assembled this, h drove the Saxons from Bohemia, and then marched towards Franconia, with the intention of crossing swords with his only serious rival, Gustavus Adolphus, who had left Munich when he heard that this foe had taken the field.
About this time some discontent arose in the allied army, and to allay this Bernhard was granted the bishoprics of Wurzburg and of Bamberg, with the title of duke of Franconia, but on the strange condition that he should hold the duchy as the vassal of Sweden, not as a vassal of the Empire.
The town of Nuremberg in Franconia, in the age of Diirer's early manhood, was a favourable home for the growth and exercise of his powers.
Given in 1002 to Otto, duke of Franconia, it was inherited by the cadet line of Spires, the head of which, the emperor Henry III., gave it to the see of Spires in 1095.
It lies in the district of Middle Franconia in a sandy but wellcultivated plain, 124 m.
WURZBURG, a university town and episcopal see of Bavaria, Germany, capital of the province of Lower Franconia, situated on the Main, 60 m.
(983-1002); his power was increased owing to the liberal grant of lands in Thuringia and Franconia which he received with his wife, and some time later his position as count palatine was recognized as an hereditary dignity.