In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
In 879 East Francia acquired the whole; from 912 to 924 it formed part of West Francia.
Thode (1897), Paul Yriarte (1901), Julia Cartwright, Mantegna and Francia (1881).
This country, north of the Main and the first residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into which Germany was divided in the Toth century - the duchy of Franconia (Franken).
At the time of Charlemagne, the word Austrasia underwent a change of meaning and became synonymous with Francia orientalis, and was applied to the Frankish dominions beyond the Rhine (Franconia).
The picture gallery is equally important in its way, affording a survey both of the earlier Bolognese paintings and of the works of the Bolognese eclectics of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, &c. The primitive masters are not of great excellence, but the works of the masters of the 15th century, especially those of Francesco Francia (1450-1517) and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara (1460-1535), are of considerable merit.
His later hero was the emperor Nicholas, "the only statesman in Christendom," - as unlucky a judgment as that which placed Dr Francia in the Comtist Calendar.
The same qualities are noticeable in his Ritratti delle cose di Francia, which he drew up after an embassy to Louis XII.
But though he met with sufficient success to encourage him to issue a charter in 858, dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia," treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on the 7th of June 860.
FRANCIA (c. 1450 - 1517), a Bolognese painter, whose real name was Francesco Raibolini, his father being Marco di Giacomo Raibolini, a carpenter, descended from an old and creditable family, was born at Bologna about 1450.
He was apprenticed to a goldsmith currently named Francia, and from him probably he got the nickname whereby he is generally known; he moreover studied design under Marco Zoppo.
Francia probably studied likewise the works of Perugino; and he became a friend and ardent admirer of Raphael, to whom he addressed an enthusiastic sonnet.
If we may trust Vasari - but it is difficult to suppose that he was entirely correct - the exceeding value which Francia set on Raphael's art brought him to his grave.
Raphael had consigned to Francia his famous picture of "St Cecilia," destined for the church of S.
Giovanni in Monte, Bologna; and Francia, on inspecting it, took so much to heart his own inferiority, at the advanced age of about sixty-six, to the youthful Umbrian, that he sickened and shortly expired on the 6th of January 1517.
Distanced though he may have been by Raphael, Francia is rightly regarded as the greatest painter of the earlier Bolognese school, and hardly to be surpassed as representing the art termed "antico-moderno," or of the "quattrocento."
The National Gallery, London, contains two remarkably fine specimens of Francia, once combined together as principal picture and lunette, - the "Virgin" and "Child and St Anna" enthroned, surrounded by saints, and (in the lunette) the "Pieta," or lamentation of angels over the dead Saviour.
Francia had more than 200 scholars.
Lorenzo Costa was much associated with Francia in pictorial work.
Among the authorities as to the life and work of Francia may be mentioned J.
C. Williamson, Francia (1900).
Bentivoglio in tempo delle sue Nunziature di Fiandria e di Francia (Cologne, 1630); Lettere diplomatiche di Guido Bentivoglio (Brussels, 1631, frequently reprinted, best edition by L.
Fontana, Renata di Francia (Rome, 1889 seq.); and E.
Asuncion is laid out on a regular plan, the credit for which is largely due to Dictator Francia; the principal streets-are paved and lighted by gas and electricity; and telephone and street-car services are maintained.
Soon after the declaration of independence in 1811, the city fell under the despotic rule of Dr Francia, and then under that of the elder and younger Lopez, through which its development was greatly impeded.
Francia the painter.
When in 825 his son Louis, afterwards called the German, was entrusted with the government of Bavaria and from this centre gradually ~ extended his authority over the Carolingian dominions east of the Rhine, a step was taken in the process by which East Francia, or Germany, was becoming a unit distinguishable from other portions of the Empire; a process which was carried further by the treaty of Verclun in August 843, when, after a struggle between Louis the German and his brothers for their fathers inheritance, an arrangement was made by which Louis obtained the bulk of the lands east of the Rhine together with the districts around Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.
The six territories which we have signalized - Ireland, Western Scotland, England, the three in West Francia which merge into each other by the end of the 9th century - do not comprise the whole field of viking raids or attempted invasion.
The whole of these vast countries, Northern Francia, with part of Burgundy, and the Rhineland, seem to lie as much at their mercy as England had done before Aethandune, or Ireland before the death of Turgesius.
In 843, by the treaty of Verdun, it became part of Lotharingia (Lorraine), and in 879 was annexed to the kingdom of East Francia (Germany) by the treaty of Meerssen.
The districts between Neustria and Austrasia were called Media Francia or simply Francia.
The word Franconia, first used in a Latin charter of 10J3, was applied like the words France, Francia and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied by the Franks.
It lacked political unity, had no opportunities for extension, and soon became divided into Rhenish Franconia (Francia rhenensis, Ger.
Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of free towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlier Franconian emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires and other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the eastern portion of the duchy.
De Oloriz, La Constiiucin espanola comparada con las de Inglaterra, Estados-Unidos, Francia y Alemania (Valencia, 1904); T.