The franchise is somewhat wider than the parliamentary.
In the third Duma, elected on a restricted franchise, the Octobrists assumed the leading role.
He at the same time instituted what was called a second chamber, the franchise qualifications for which were easier, but which was not endowed with any real power.
But the exclusion of Gregoire from the chamber and the changes in the franchise embittered the Radicals without conciliating the "Ultras."
The system of apportionment and the franchise qualifications were worked out to meet the needs of a group of agricultural communities.
Coloured persons are not, by name, excluded from the franchise, but no persons " subject to special laws and tribunals," 1 in which category all natives are included, are entitled to vote.
"b Four days later, in answer to a question by the same deputy, Count Andrassy said that the Franchise Bill would be introduced shortly, but that it would be of such a nature that "the Magyar State idea would remain intact and suffer no diminution."
All electors not having the qualifications for the plural franchise were to have one vote.
Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
In India the franchise is exercised without distinction of color or nationality; in Senegal the electors are the inhabitants (black and white) of the communes which have been given full powers.
In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.
The franchise is enjoyed by all domiciled males over twenty-five years of age who pay taxes.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
When peace was concluded fresh elections were held on the new franchise law introduced by the Cabinet, which raised the electorate from 3,000,000 to 8,000,000 votes (Oct.
The right to determine the electoral franchise is vested in the legislature itself and that body has conferred it upon practically all adult males.
Milner then made the enactment by the Transvaal of a franchise law which would at once give the Johannesburgers a share in the government of the country his main, and practically his only, demand.
The franchise is granted to every male Cuban twenty-one years of age, not mentally incapacitated, nor previously a convict of crime, nor serving in the army or navy of the state.
In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.
Yet Frederick William had so far profited by the lessons of 1848 that he consented to establish (1850) a national parliament, though with a restricted franchise and limited powers.
Another law, 2 directed against Indians, excludes from the franchise, natives, or descendants of natives in the male line, of countries not possessing elective representative institutions.
The House of Representatives consists of members elected, under the Electoral Law of 1874, by a complicated franchise based upon property, taxation, profession or official position, and ancestral privileges.3 The house consists of 453 members, of which 413 are deputies elected in Hungary and 43 delegates of Croatia-Slavonia sent by the parliament of that province.
The executive power is vested in a responsible cabinet, consisting of ten ministers, namely, the president of the council, the minister of the interior, of national defence, of education and public worship, of finance, The franchise is " probably the most illiberal in Europe."
For the question of franchise reform which played so great a part in the AustroHungarian crisis of1909-1910'see' History, below.
' Of the 16,000,000 inhabitants of Hungary barely a half were Magyar; and the franchise was possessed by only 800,000, of whom the Magyars formed the overwhelming majority.
The plan, concerted by Kossuth and Apponyi, with the approval of Baron Aehrenthal, was to carry on a modified coalition government with the aid of the Andrassy Liberals, the National party, the Clerical People's party 2 and the Independence party, on a basis of suffrage reform with plural franchise, the 2 The People's party first emerged during the elections of 1896, when it contested 98 seats.
Rauch's position had become untenable, and he was succeeded by the more moderate Dr. Tomasic, who brought with him from Budapest the concession of a somewhat extended franchise (260,000 instead of 50,000 electors).
Every adult white male British subject is entitled to the franchise, subject to a six months' residential qualification.'
Franchise, and also for a more liberal commercial policy in the matter of railways, dynamite and customs dues, began to be made.
Following this incident came a further alteration in the franchise law, making the franchise practically impossible to obtain.
He offered, it is true, a seven years' franchise law in place of the five years' franchise which Sir Alfred Milner asked for.
The franchise, again, was an internal affair, in which the convention gave Great Britain no right to interfere, while if Great Britain relied on certain definite breaches of the convention, satisfaction for which was sought in the first place in such a guarantee of amendment as the Uitlander franchise would involve, the Boer answer was an offer of arbitration, a course which Great Britain could not accept without admitting the South African Republic to the position of an equal.
Notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Indian government, the imperial authorities could not effectively intervene; a self-governing colony (in which whites alone possessed the franchise) must be allowed to take its own course.
The town was first represented in parliament by two members in 1572; it lost its franchise by the Reform Act of 1832.
Presently other settlers, perhaps not always Greek, gathered round the original Syracusan people; they formed a distinct body, Siiµos or plebs, personally free, but with an inferior political franchise or none at all.
The charter of 1663 and the franchise law of 1724 established substantial equality of representation among the towns, and restricted the suffrage to freeholders.
In connexion with this system of salaries should be mentioned a somewhat reactionary law carried by Pericles in 451, by which an Athenian parentage on both sides was made an express condition of retaining the franchise and with it the right of sitting on paid juries.
The country districts, and to exclude from the franchise numbers of peasants and small proprietors who, though of more conservative temperament and of better economic position than the artizan population of the large towns, were often unable to fulfil the scholarship qualification.
Only the Samnites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, remained his enemies, and it seemed as if the old war between Rome and Samnium had to be fought once again.
On the whole it seems most likely that, while the kernel of the Roman plebs was rural or belonged to the small towns admitted to the Roman franchise, the Attic demos, largely at least, though doubtless not wholly, arose out of the mixed settlers who had come together in the city, answering to the p rotKot of later times.
In 1909 the number of exiles for political reasons from Russia was reckoned at 180,000; but the third Duma, purged and packed by an ingenious franchise system, was in its third year passing measures of beneficent legislation, in complete harmony with the government.
The constitution which he promulgated (508/7) gave expression to the change of political feeling by providing a national basis of franchise and providing a new state organization.
There is also a legislative assembly of 29 members, representing 15 electoral districts; the franchise being extended to white and coloured men of 21 years of age at least, resident in the colony for not less than twelve months, and possessing land of a value of 5 or more, or being householders for six months at a rental not less than £2: 18s.
Croats, Vlachs, Serbs and Slovaks resented Magyar domination - a domination which had been carefully secured under the revolutionary constitution by a very narrow franchise, and out of the general chaos each race hoped to create for itself a separate national existence.
The dominant Magyar parties were committed to the principle of franchise reform; but they were determined that this reform should be of such a nature as not to imperil their own hegemony.
Under his weaker but more neutral guidance, and aided by the unifying force of the Adriatic crisis, the parties reached agreement upon a new parliamentary franchise, based on universal suffrage.
In 1882 also began that alteration of the franchise law which subsequently developed into positive exclusion of practically all save the original Boer burghers of the country from the franchise.
In 1881, on the retrocession, full franchise rights could be obtained after two years' residence; in 1882 the period of residence was increased to five years.
In response Kruger enacted that the period of qualification for the full franchise should now be raised to ten years instead of five.
Their selection and election were governed by the same laws as in Natal proper, and on the establishment of the Union the franchise qualifications - which practically exclude natives - remained unaltered.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.