Rend., 1900, 130, p. 865) by fractionally distilling the product formed in the direct action of fluorine on sulphur.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum.
The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution.
The basic constituents are removed by dilute sulphuric acid, the acid layer removed, and the bases liberated by alkali, separated, dried, and fractionally distilled.
The trichloride, VC1 31 is a deliquescent solid formed when the tetrachloride is heated in a retort as long as chlorine is given off (Roscoe), or by heating vanadium trisulphide in a current of chlorine and fractionally distilling the resulting product at 150° C. in a current of carbon dioxide (Halberstadt, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1619).