Here about 1566 his enemies renewed their activity, and in 1567 he was formally accused by Fra Angelo the inquisitor of Milan.
The cause of the republic was brilliantly advocated by Fra Paolo Sarpi, counsellor of state; the defenders of the papal theory were Cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine.
The names of some of these earliest captains of adventure, Fra Moriale, Count Lando and Duke Werner, who styled himself the Enemy of God and Mercy, have been preserved to us.
The brigand Fra Diavolo, the hero of Auber's opera, was a native of Itri, and the place was once noted for brigandage.
The Cronica altinate in the vision of Fra Mauro gives us a picturesque account of the founding of the various parishes, Olivolo or Castello, St Raffaello, St Salvadore, Sta Maria Formosa, S.
It is a noble portal, erected in 1460, apparently from designs by Fra Giocondo, with the lion of St Mark in the attic. The statuary, with Sta Giustina on the summit of the tympanum, was added in 1571 and 1578.
In 1635 Fra Fortunato Olmo found in a room over the great door of St Mark's a number of books which he supposed to be Petrarch's gift.
So far as European politics are concerned, the latter years of the republic are made memorable by one important event: the resistance which Venice, under the guidance of Fra Paolo Sarpi, offered to the growing claims of the Curia Romana, advanced by Pope Paul V.
Amelot next published in 1683 a translation of Fra Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent.
Associated with it are Francesco Pizigano (1367-1373), Francesco de Cesanis (1421), Giacomo Giroldi (1422-1446), Andrea Bianco (43-44) Giovanni Leardo (1442-1452), Alvise Cadamosto, who was associated with the Portuguese explorers on the west coast of Africa (1454-1456) and whose Portolano was printed at Venice in 1490, and Fra Mauro (1457).
Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time.
In the interior there are a "Madonna and Child" of Fra Bartolommeo and a number of other paintings and works of art.
The Gothic church of San Niccolo (1310-1352) contains a fine tomb by Tullio Lombardo, and a large altarpiece by Fra Marco Pensabene and others; in the church and adjoining chapter-house are frescoes by Tommaso da Modena (1352), some frescoes by whom (life of S.
In the i 5th century its walls and ramparts (still extant) were renewed under the direction of Fra Giocondo, two of the gates being built by the Lombardi.
Of the monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince Corsini.
At this time the Dominican Fra Girolamo Savonarola was in Florence and aroused the whole city by his denunciations of ecclesiastical corruption and also of that of the Florentines.
Martin Saint-Leon, Histoire des corporations de métiers (Paris, 1897); C. Nyrop, Danmarks Gildeog La y sskraaer fra middelalderen (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1899-1904); F.
Among them were Fra Raimondo, who became master-general of the Dominicans, William Flete, an ascetically-minded Englishman from Cambridge, Stefano Maconi, who joined the Carthusians and ultimately became prior-general, and the two secretaries, Neri di Landoccio and Francesco Malavolti.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall.
His cloister, sanctified by memories of St Antonine and adorned with the inspired paintings of Fra Angelico, seemed to him a fore-court of heaven.
The 1VIagnifico then sought to undermine his popularity, and Fra Mariano was employed to attack him from the pulpit.
Savonarola took up the challenge; his eloquence prevailed, and Fra Mariano was silenced.
Shortly afterwards the threatened bull of excommunication was launched against him, and Fra Mariano was in Rome stimulating the pope's wrath.
The Piagnoni were again at the head of the state, and by their request the prior resumed his sermons in the duomo, while his dearest disciple, Fra Domenico Buonvicini, filled the pulpit of St Lorenzo.
At first the prior treated the provocation with merited contempt, but his too zealous disciple Fra Domenico accepted the challenge.
And, when the Franciscan declared that he would enter the fire with Savonarola alone, Fra Domenico protested his willingness to enter it with any one in defence of his master's cause.
As Savonarola resolutely declined the trial, the Franciscan deputed a convert, one Giuliano dei Rondinelli, to go through the ordeal with Fra Domenico.
Fra Domenico stepped forward, but neither Rondinelli nor Fri.
In vain Savonarola besought them to lay down their arms. When the church was finally stormed Savonarola was seen praying at the altar, and Fra Domenico, armed with an enormous candlestick, guarding him from the blows of the mob.
Later, betrayed by the same Malatesta, Fra Silvestro was also seized.
Fra Silvestro on the contrary gave way at mere sight of the rack, and this seer of heavenly visions owned himself and his master guilty of every crime laid to their charge.
Fra Domenico exulted in the thought of dying by his master's side; Fra Silvestro, on the contrary, raved with despair.
Fra Domenico's loyalty had never wavered, and the weak Silvestro's enthusiasm rekindled at sight of his chief.
Madden, The Life and Martyrdom of Girolamo Savonarola, &c. (London, 18 54); Bartolommeo Aquarone, Vita di Fra Geronimo Savonarola (Alessandria, 1857); L.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
Below Fiesole, between it and Florence, lies San Domenico di Fiesole (485 ft.); in the Dominican monastery the painter, Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (1387-1455), lived until he went to S.
Maria in Organo, dating from 1481, with a facade of 1592 from Sanmichele's designs, contains paintings by various Veronese masters, and some fine choir-stalls of 1 499 by Fra Gioconda.
From the skill of Fra Giocondo, Verona was for many years one of the chief centres in which the most refined and graceful forms of the early Renaissance were developed.
The town hall, with its light open loggia of semicircular arches on the ground floor, was designed by Fra Giocondo towards the end of the i 5th century; its sculptured enrichments of pilasters and friezes are very graceful, though lacking the vigorous life of the earlier medieval sculptured ornamentation.
High), while in the north-east corner of the latter Piazza is the fine early Renaissance Palazzo del Consiglio (1476-1492), probably designed by Fra Giocondo.
(iv.) The early Renaissance developed into very exceptional beauty in Verona, mainly through the genius of Fra Giocondo (1435-1514), a native of Verona, who was at first a friar in the monastery of S.
The last and greatest master of the school was a priest named Meicho, better known as Ch Densu, the Japanese Fra Angelico.
Current periodicals are: Studier fra Sprogog Oldtidsforskning (1891), quarterly; Danske Magazin, yearly; Nyt Tidsskrift for Mathematik, monthly; Theologisk Tidsskrift, monthly; Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, bi-monthly; Dansk bogfortegnelse, bi-monthly for bibliography; Athenaeum finsk; Tilskueren, monthly; Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed (archaeology) quarterly.
Opposite is the baptistery, with three fine pictures by Fra Angelico.
It is there that Fra Mauro's great map (1459) presents a fine city with the rubric, "Qui it Preste Janni fa residentia principal."
See Cecilia Math-Holmberg, Carl XV., som enskild man, konung och konstncir (Stockholm, 1891); Yngvar Nielsen, Det norske og svenske Kongehus fra 1818 (Christiania, 1883).
Pliny's Panegyric was discovered by Aurispa at Mainz (1433), and his correspondence with Trajan by Fra Giocondo in Paris about 150o.
The frescoes in the choir, with scenes from the life of St John the Baptist and St Stephen, are by Fra Filippo Lippi (1456-1466) and are his best work; the dance of Salome and the lying in state of St Stephen are the finest of the series.
FRA DIAVOLO (1771-1806), the popular name given to a famous Italian brigand associated with the political revolutions of southern Italy at the time of the French invasion.
Fra Diavolo was made leader of one of them, and waged untiring war against the French troops, cutting off isolated detachments and murdering stragglers and couriers.
When Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Naples, extraordinary tribunals were established to suppress brigandage, and a price was put on Fra Diavolo's head.
The best known account of Fra Diavolo is in Pietro Colletta's Storia del reame di Napoli (2nd ed., Florence, 1848); B.
Amante's Fra Diavolo e it suo tempo (Florence, 1904) is an attempted rehabilitation; but A.
There is also a fine pulpit by Fra Guglielmo dell' Agnello of Pisa (1270).