Domestic and wild fowl are generally abundant.
Some have added fish to their dietary; but, speaking generally, all who are called vegetarians will be found to abstain from the use of flesh and fowl and almost invariably also from fish as food.
About the size of a large domestic fowl, they are birds of nocturnal habit, sleeping, or at least inactive, by day, feeding mostly on earth-worms, but occasionally swallowing berries, though in captivity they will eat flesh suitably minced.
" Bird," when it passed from its earliest meaning of " nestlings," seems to have been applied to the smaller, and " fowl " to the larger species, a distinction which was retained by Johnson.
- The " sacrum" of a young Fowl; natural size, seen from below.
In this work birds generally were grouped in two great divisions - " land-fowl " and "water-fowl" - the former being subdivided into those which have a crooked beak and talons, and those which have a straighter bill and claws, while the latter was separated into those which frequent waters and watery places, and those that swim in the water - each subdivision being further broken up into many :sections, to the whole of which a key was given.
P. 187, note), the skeleton of a fowl to which was attached the head of a hornbill was for a long time exhibited in the Museum of Comparative Anatomy at Paris !
Elliot, Gallinaceous Game Birds of North America (New York, 1897) and Wild Fowl of the United States and British Possessions (1898), and Robert Ridgway's learned and invaluable Birds of North and Middle America, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Bull.
Geoffroy here maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in the duck just as in the fowl, and that the real difference of the process lay in the period at which they made their appearance, a circumstance which, though virtually proved by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him overlooked or misinterpreted.
The fowl possesses all five ossifications at birth, and for a long while the middle piece forming the keel is by far the largest.
The phosphatic deposit has doubtless been produced by the long-continued action of a thick bed of sea-fowl dung, which converted the carbonate of the underlying limestone into phosphate.
Pelecanus or Pelecanus), a large fish-eating water-fowl, remarkable for the enormous pouch formed by the extensible skin between the lower jaws of its long, and apparently formidable but in reality very weak, bill.
The animal most suitable for experimenting upon is the fowl, but other animals have been found to react.
Thus Krawkow and Nowak, employing the frequent subcutaneous injection of the usual organisms of suppuration, have induced in the fowl the deposition within the tissues of a homogeneous substance giving the colour reactions of true amyloid.
When hardened in spirit, however, the greater part of this experimental amyloid in the fowl vanishes, and the reactions are not forthcoming.
These observations have been verified in the rabbit, mouse, fowl, guinea-pig and cat by Davidsohn, occasionally in the dog by Lubarsch; and confirmatory observations have also been made by Czerny and Maximoff.
Dorking has long been famous for a finely flavoured breed of fowl distinguished by its having five toes.
In length) from the common fowl detaches its four or five segments into the intestine, where they attain a length of 2 trim., and a breadth of 1.25; that is, more than twice the size of the parent.
The latter commemorates, according to tradition, the fowl which was the first living being to cross the bridge and thus fell a prey to the devil, who in hope of a nobler victim had sold his assistance to the architect.
Domestic animals have for representatives the horse (uma), a small beast with little beauty of form though possessing much hardihood and endurance; the ox (ushs)~mainly a beast of burden or draught; the pig (buta), very occasionally; the dog (mu), an unsightly and useless brute; the cat (neko), with a stump in lieu of a tail; barndoor fowl (niwa-tori), ducks (ahiro) and pigeons (hato).
Shibuichi inlaid with shakudo used to be the commonest combination of metals in this class of decoration, and the objects usually depicted were bamboos, crows, wild-fowl under the moon, peony sprays and so forth.
Of small game, hares, jungle fowl, peacocks, partridges, snipe, woodcock, wild ducks and geese, and green pigeons are numerous in the tarai, and jungle fowl and pheasants in the hills.
VEGETARIANISM, a comparatively modern word, which came into use about the year 1847, as applied to the practice of living upon foods from which fish, flesh and fowl are excluded.
The rule laid down by the Order is abstinence so far as possible from all foods which are obtained by the cruel infliction of pain, and the minimum that is set is complete "abstinence from flesh and fowl," while net-caught fish may be used by associate members.
The collection is not usually very rich in species, but there have been great and long-continued successes in the breeding of large animals such as hippopotamuses, lions and antelopes, and a very large business is done in domesticated birds, water-fowl and cage birds.
COUSCOUS, or Kous-Kous (an Arabic word derived from kaskasa, to pound), a dish common among the inhabitants of North Africa, made of flour rubbed together and steamed over a stew of mutton, fowl, &c., with which it is eaten.
That in the palace gardens flowers from the tierra caliente were transplanted, and water-fowl bred near fresh and salt pools fit for each kind, that all kinds of birds and beasts were kept in well-appointed zoological gardens, where there were homes even for alligators and snakes - all this testifies to a cultivation of natural history which was really beyond the European level of the time.
The inhabitants of Kalocsa and its wide-spreading communal lands are chiefly employed in the cultivation of the vine, fruit, flax, hemp and cereals, in the capture of water-fowl and in fishing.
Ray's translation of that work (p. 334), stating that it is "a Sea-fowl, which fishermen observe to resort to their vessels in some numbers, swimming 1 swiftly to and fro, backward, forward and about them, and doth as it were radere aquam, shear the water, from whence perhaps it had its name."
But it is almost as unquestionable that the name was originally applied to the bird which we know as the guinea-fowl, and there is no doubt that some authors in the 16th and 17th centuries curiously confounded these two species.
But even Linnaeus could not clear himself of the confusion, and unhappily misapplied the name Meleagris, undeniably belonging to the guinea-fowl, as the generic term for what we now know as the turkey, adding thereto as its specific designation the word gallopavo, taken from the Gallopava of C. Gesner, who, though not wholly free from error, was less mistakep than some of his contemporaries and even successors.'
"I wish to get a fowl for to-morrow's dinner," he said.
In modern usage " fowl," except in " wild-fowl " or " water-fowl," is confined to domestic poultry.
- Os hyoides of adult Fowl, X II diameters.
156, 1866; " Skull of Common Fowl," ibid.
- Pelvis and caudal vertebrae of adult Fowl, side view, natural size.
Jacobson's organ has been lost by the birds, apparently without a trace in the embryonic fowl, but T.
For instance, in the fowl its volume increases about fifty-fold, growing from some 6 in.
Kitchen-middens of England, Ireland and Denmark reveal the existence of the capercally, Tetrao urogallus, and of the great auk or gare-fowl, Alca impennis; both species long since vanished from those countries.
Horses and other draught animals are reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes."
Several varieties of water-fowl, especially curlews, pelicans, gulls, ducks, terns, geese and snipe, are found in the vicinity of the lakes.
'QUEZAL, or Quesal, the Spanish-American name for one of the most beautiful of birds, abbreviated from the Aztec or Maya Quetzal-tototl, the last part of the compound word meaning fowl, and the first, also written Cuetzal, the long feathers of rich green with which it is adorned.'
Many visitors are attracted by the fishing (especially for tarpon) and shooting in the vicinity, water-fowl being plentiful in the Bay, and deer, quail and wild turkeys being found in the vicinity inland.
Detail, illustrating his statements by the preparations he exhibited, the progress of ossification in the sternum of the fowl and of the duck, pointing out how it differed in each, and giving his interpretation of the differences.
It had hitherto been generally believed that the mode of ossification in the fowl was that which obtained in all birds - the ostrich and its allies (as L'Herminier, we have seen, had already shown) excepted.
Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are developed, and when once formed they grow with much greater rapidity than in the fowl, so that by the time the young duck is quite independent of its parents, and can shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony.
Among game birds are three varieties of bustard, guinea fowl, partridges, sand grouse and wild geese.
There is an immense variety of water-fowl, including the phalarope, fulmar petrel, kittiwake, Manx shearwater, black guillemot, whimbrel, puffin and white-tailed eagle.
The avifauna is very rich in migratory water and marsh fowl (Grallatores and Natatores), which come to breed in the coast region; but only five land birds - the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), snow-bunting, Iceland falcon, snow-owl and raven - are permanent inhabitants of the region.
The common domesticated fowl is not indigenous.
Among the larger birds are cranes, herons, the ibis, storks, eagles, vultures, falcons, hawks, kites, owls, the secretary birds, pelicans, flamingoes, wild duck and geese, gulls, and of game birds, the paauw, koraan, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl and quail.
Among game birds the bustard, guinea fowl, sand grouse (kata), blue rock, green pigeon, partridge, including a large chikor (akb) and a small species similar to the Punjab sisi; quail and several kinds of duck and snipe are met with.
Sea-fowl are most numerous on the coasts of Lower California, where certain islands in the arid belt are frequented at night by countless numbers of them.
While discussing noses, he says that those with thick bulbous ends belong to persons who are insensitive, swinish; sharp-tipped belong to the irascible, those easily provoked, like dogs; rounded, large, obtuse noses to the magnanimous, the lion-like; slender hooked noses to the eagle-like, the noble but grasping; round-tipped retrousse noses to the luxurious, like barndoor fowl; noses with a very slight notch at the root belong to the impudent, the crow-like; while snub noses belong to persons of luxurious habits, whom he compares to deer; open nostrils are signs of passion, &c.
The dung of the domestic fowl is very similar in character.
Dorothy sprang forward and caught the fluffy fowl in her arms, uttering at the same time a glad cry.
The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.
Yes, go to the yard and fetch a fowl, please, a cock, and you, Misha, bring me some oats.
Yancey got up the next morning in a fowl mood and stayed that way for several days.
- A cervical vertebra from the middle of the neck of a Fowl; natural size.
Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.
Birds are fairly numerous, and include many varieties of water-fowl, several of which (Anser indicus, the bar-headed goose, for instance) breed in Tibet, while others are only found as birds of passage.