The sharp, broken end penetrates the skin, and into the slight wound thus formed the formic acid contained by the hair is injected.
Glycerin is also employed in the manufacture of formic acid.
CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.
Strong oxidation breaks the benzene complex into such compounds, as carbon dioxide, oxalic acid, formic acid, &c.; such decompositions are of little interest.
The simplest aliphatic compounds, such as diazo-methane, diazoethane, and azo-formic acid, are yellow; the diamide of the latter acid is orange-red.
It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
The mean values of k for other common acids were - formic, 0.0000214; acetic, o 0000180; monochloracetic, 0.0.0155; dichloracetic, 0.051; trichloracetic, 1.21; propionic, 0.0000134.
In a similar manner, formic acid and dicyanophenylhydrazine yields a phenyl-triazole carboxylic acid, in which the phenyl group may be nitrated, the nitro group reduced to the amino group, and the product oxidized to a triazole carboxylic acid, which, by elimination of carbon dioxide, yields the free triazole: HO 2 C C=N H02C C =N, NPh-> N :CH N :CH They also result when the acidylthiosemicarbazides are strongly heated, the mercapto-triazoles so formed being converted into triazoles on oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (M.
Busch (Ber., 1905, 38, pp. 856, 4049) has isolated a series of bridged ring compounds which he describes as endo-iminodihydrotriazoles, the triphenyl derivative (annexed formula) being prepared by condensing triphenylaminoguanidine with formic acid.
Formic acid yields acridine, and the higher homologues give derivatives substituted at the meso carbon atom, N N +[[Hcooh-C 6 H 5 /Inc6h5->C6h4 C6h4 Cho Ch N N +Ch 3 000h->C 6 H 5 /IC 6 H 5 --C 6 H 4 < >C6h4 Coch 3 C]](CH3) Acridine may also 1:e obtained by passing the vapour of phenylortho-toluidine through a red-hot tube (C. Graebe, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 1 37 0); by condensing diphenylamine with chloroform, in presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Sodium amalgam converts it into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic ester.
Another mixture of this type is formic acid and water.
It loses its water of crystallization at loo C., and begins to sublime at about 150160° C., whilst on heating to a still higher temperature it partially decomposes into carbon dioxide and formic acid, or into carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water; the latter decomposition being also brought about by heating oxalic acid with concentrated sulphuric acid.
When heated with glycerin to ioo C. it yields formic acid and carbon dioxide; above this temperature, allyl alcohol is formed.
Oxidation gives formaldehyde, formic acid and carbonic acid; chlorine and bromine react, but less readily than with ethyl alcohol.
It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.
They boil at temperatures somewhat lower than those of the corresponding nitriles; and are stable towards alkalis, but in the presence of mineral acids they readily hydrolyse, forming primary amines and formic acid: RNC+2H 2 O = RNH2+H2C02.
Soc., 1902, 81, p. 1 59 6) who showed that the products obtained by the action of alkyl iodides on the isonitriles in alcoholic solution at 100° C. yield amine hydroidides and formic acid when hydrolysed.
FORMIC ACID, H 2 CO 2 or H.
Finally, formic acid is, as.
Formic acid is a colourless, sharp-smelling liquid, which crystallizes at 0° C., melts at 8.6° C. and boils at 100.8° C. Its specific gravity is 1.22 (20°/4°).
The silver and mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when distilled, gives some formamide, Hconh 2.
Formic ester yields a secondary alcohol under similar conditions.
Equally good comparisons have been obtained for solutions in other solvents such as acetic acid 3.88, formic acid 2.84, benzene 5.30, and nitrobenzene 6.95.
In the same island a species of Gryllacris mimics Pheropsophus aquatus, a " Bombardier " beetle which ejects a puff of volatile formic acid when attacked; and Condylodera tricondyloides mimics different species of tiger-beetles (Cicindelidae) at different stages of its growth.
It reacts with sodium ethylate to form ortho-formic ester, CH(OC 2 H 5) 3, and when heated with aqueous ammonia for some hours at 200-220° C. gives carbon monoxide and ammonium formate, 2CHC1 3 + 7N11 3 -13H 2 0= NH 4 HCO 2 + C0+6NH4C1 (G.
The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).
Chromic acid and potassium permanganate oxidize it to formic and carbonic acids, whilst hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous salts gives dihydroxymaleic acid (H.
It has been suggested that urea is formed by polymerization of ammonium carbonate, and formic aldehyde is synthesized from CO 2 and 011 2.
Formic ether gives a peach-like odour, and is used for flavouring fictitious rum.
The products of oxidation are not yet fully known; most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic and acetic acids, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones.
Secondary alcohols result from the reduction of ketones; and from the reaction of zinc alkyls on aldehydes or formic acid esters.
>CH3ï¿½CHHC--CH, -HC - CH 3 >HC--CH3 OC 2 H 5 CH3 CH3 Formic ester.
A typical member is nitric oxide; carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide may also be put in this class, but it must be remembered that these oxides may be regarded, in some measure at least, as the anhydrides of formic and hyponitrous acid, although, at the same time, it is impossible to obtain these acids by simple hydration of these oxides.
It extracts the elements of water from formic acid, giving carbon monoxide; from oxalic acid, giving a mixture of carbon monoxide and dioxide; from alcohol, to give ether or ethylene according to the conditions of the experiment; and from many oxygenated compounds (e.g.
When heated with dilute sulphuric acid to 130° C., under pressure, it is resolved into formic acid and acetaldehyde.
On heating with hydrochloric acid at 180-200° C. it is decomposed; the products of the reaction being glycocoll, ammonia, formic acid and carbon dioxide.
The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.