The rock formations of the state furnish building stones of great value.
The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
It is one of the most rapid and economical which can be employed in soft formations, but where hard rock is encountered it is almost useless.
Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as also in the fluvial and Karst valleys (poljes), are found diluvial and alluvial formations, interrupted at one place by an isolated granite layer.
(Lefebvre), all new formations since the outbreak of the war, followed some marches in the rear.
These new structures would rest uncomfortably upon eroded formations and this, Wayland Vaughan points out, is what we actually observe in the case of living and fossil coral reefs.
Volcanic formations, so far as is known, occur chiefly along the north-western border-range of the great plateau.
The geological formations represented include: Post-Cretaceous and Recent Cretaceous.
The Oligocene and Miocene formations are present, but the Upper Miocene is confined to the coast.
Such formations as "Caesariani," "Pompeiani").
The series appears to be in line with Geology similar formations at Tripoli in Africa, Cagliari in and Water Sardinia, and to the east of Marseilles.
The desert was flat, the rock formations and canyons plentiful.
Under the heading of Multituberculata will be found a brief account of certain extinct mammals from the Mesozoic formations of Europe and North America which have been regarded as more or less nearly related to the monotremes.
Dr Jack, late government geologist of Queensland, considers the extent of the coal-fields of that state to be practically unlimited, and is of opinion that the carboniferous formations extend to a considerable distance under the Great Western Plains.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
Mechnikov considered the plate thus formed at the base of the polyp as equivalent to the umbrella, and the body of the polyp as equivalent to the manubrium, of the medusa; on this view the marginal tentacles almost invariably present in medusae are new formations, and the tentacles of the polyp are represented in the medusa by the oral arms which may occur round the mouth, and which sometimes, e.g.
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift.
The latter may develop stereom, and may also be the seat of origin of new formations of various kindse.g.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
Scierophyllous formations, e.g., garigues, maquis, and forests I
Coniferous forest formations, e.g., of Pinus sylvestris, Picea f~
The Tertiary formations occupy large areas in S.
The older formations are nearly all overlaid by deposits of the Quaternary period, which will be described last.
Wherever stratification is observed in these formations in Mississippi, it shows a dip west and south of 20 or 30 ft.
The Lias and Oolite formations are well represented, but the Sequanian and Kimmeridgian subdivisions are absent.
Remote regions which are floristicafly distinct ~ may possess areas physically almost identical and yet be iered by different formations (Clements,I 1905: 203).
Steppe and desert formations are of the open type.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.
Over the greater part of the Cambrian country the strata are still nearly as flat as when they were first laid down, and the deposits, even of the Cambrian period, are as soft as those of the Mesozoic and Tertiary formations in England.
There are four formations of Cretaceous strata in Mississippi, defined by lines having the same general direction as the one just described.
Westward to Houston and southward to about 32° 48' on the Alabama boundary and occupying a much larger area than the other Cretaceous formations, is the Selma chalk, called "Rotten Limestone" by Hilgard; it is made up of a material of great uniformity, - a soft chalky rock, white or pale blue, composed chiefly of tenacious clay, and white carbonate of lime in minute crystals.
Seven formations (or groups) of the Tertiary strata have been distinguished in Mississippi.
The Vicksburg formation lies next in order south-west, in a narrow strip of fairly regular width which alone of the Tertiary formations runs as far west as the Mississippi River; it is probably nowhere more than 110 ft.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
The older formation of the Quaternary period is the Lafayette (also called "Orange-sand" or "stratified drift"), which immediately overlies all the Cretaceous groups except the prairies of the Selma chalk, and all the Tertiary except the Porters Creek and Vicksburg formations and parts of the Jackson.
The unlookedfor discovery in France of remains which he has referred to, forms now existing it is true, but existing only in countries far removed from Europe, forms such as Collocalia, Leptosomus, Psittacus, Serpentarius and Trogon, is perhaps even more suggestive than the finding that France was once inhabited by forms that are wholly extinct, of which in the older formations there is abundance.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
The prevailing formations appear to be granites which are veined with white quartz, and underlie old sedimentary brown sandstone and limestone formations.
Important formations of chromite are found at Hagdale and the Heog Hills; steatite occurs at Kleber Geo, and many interesting minerals have been recorded from these islands.
Along the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia.
Next, proceeding from this region in an easterly direction, are the Neogene freshwater formations, filling up the greatest part of the north-east of Bosnia, as also a zone of flysch intermingled with several strips of eruptive rock.
In the south-east of Bosnia the predominant formations are Triassic and Palaeozoic strata with red sandstone and quartzite.
Besides huge masses of old schists and sandstones, the range contains extensive limestone, marble, diorite, basalt and porphyry formations, while granite prevails on its southern slopes.
The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches and obstructed river channels.
It consists of a series of plateaus formed of sedimentary rocks which mainly belong to three formations of widely separated ages, and which rest on a platform of granitic and metamorphic rocks.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
Compared with other formations they occupy restricted areas, being only met with south of Johannesburg, around Wolmaransstad, Lichtenburg and east of Marico.
This, one of the most difficult problems of pathology, is being attacked by many able workers, who are all striving from different standpoints to elucidate the nature of these new formations, which spring from the normal tissues in which they develop and which they destroy.
Below Bingen the formations belong almost entirely to the PostTertiary period.
Veins and flat deposits below the general level Boring of the country; or the outcrop lies beyond the limits of the property or under water or water-bearing formations, or is covered by quicksand, or is deeply buried.
As in the case of similar formations generally, they are endowed with a sensitiveness to touch which enables them to grasp and coil themselves round any suitable object which comes in their way, and thus to support the plant.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations.
(Reins Japan and Milne in Things Japanese.) The above conditions suggest the presence of tertiary formations, vet only the younger groups of that formation appear to be developed.
In the middle Eocene formations of North America occurs the more specialized Uintatherium (or Dinoceras), typifying the family Uintatheriidae, which also contains species sometimes Restored skeleton of Uintatherium (Dinoceras) mirabile.