18, p. 806) a mixture containing sodium hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates.
Referring to the esters C9H1802 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boilingpoints belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least symmetrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most symmetrical.
In de Lambilly's process air and steam is led over white-hot coke, and carbon dioxide or monoxide removed from the escaping gases according as ammonium formate or carbonate is wanted.
The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3Rï¿½CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3Rï¿½CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
In the German Patent 1 57573 (1904) it is shown that by the action of at least two molecular proportions of an alkyl formate on two molecular proportions of a magnesium alkyl or aryl haloid, a complex addition compound is formed, which readily decomposes into a basic magnesium salt and an aldehyde, C H MgBr-f-H000R-ROï¿½CHï¿½C H.
Alcoholic solutions of the alkalis also produce much nitrite along with some formate and acetate.
Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.
The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.
And is readily soluble in water, but the solution is unstable and decomposes on standing, giving amorphous insoluble substances, and ammonium formate, oxalic acid, &c. An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide converts it into oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, and reduction by zinc and hydrochloric acid gives methylamine.
Chloroform boiled with alcoholic potash forms potassium formate (J.
Formamide, Hconh 2, is obtained by heating ethyl formate with ammonia; by heating ammonium formate with urea to 140° C., 2HCO.
ONH 4 +CO(NH 2) 2 = 2Hconh 2 + (NH 4) 2 C3 3; by heating ammonium formate in a sealed tube for some hours at 230° C., or by the action of sodium amalgam on a solution of potassium cyanate (H.
It may also be prepared by oxidizing benzyl alcohol with concentrated nitric acid; by distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate; by the condensation of chlor-oxalic ester with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, the ester of the ketonic acid formed being then hydrolysed and the resulting acid distilled: C 6 H 6 +Cl CO Cooc 2 H 5 = C,H5co COOC2H5d-HC1, C 6 H 5 CO 000H =C6H5CHO+C02; by the action of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid on benzene, an aldime being formed as an intermediate product: C 6 H 6 +HCN+HC1= C6H5CH :NH HC1, Benzaldine hydrochloride C 6 H 5 CH: NH HC1+H 2 O =NH4C1+C6H5CHO; and by the action of chromium oxychloride on toluene dissolved in carbon bisulphide (A.
It reacts with sodium ethylate to form ortho-formic ester, CH(OC 2 H 5) 3, and when heated with aqueous ammonia for some hours at 200-220° C. gives carbon monoxide and ammonium formate, 2CHC1 3 + 7N11 3 -13H 2 0= NH 4 HCO 2 + C0+6NH4C1 (G.
Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 423); and when heated with alcoholic potash it is converted into potassium formate, CHC1 3 + 4KHO = Khco 2 + 3KC1+ 211 2 0.
When heated with ammonium formate to 150° C. it forms f3-napht!iylamine.
Chemie, 1868, p. 34), or by heating the sulphonate with sodium formate (V.
With the Grignard reagent, they form addition compounds which on the addition of water yield tertiary alcohols, except in the case of ethyl formate, where a secondary alcohol is obtained.
Ethyl formate, H CO 2 C 2 H 5, boils at 55° C. and has been used in the artificial preparation of rum.
It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.
Lunge, Berichte, 1877, 10, p. 12 75); by fusing sodium benzene sulphonate with sodium formate: C6H5S03Na+-HC02Na=C6HS000Na+ NaHS0 3; by heating calcium phthalate with calcium hydroxide to 330 0 -350° C.; by heating benzotrichloride with water in a sealed tube, and from the hippuric acid which is found in the urine of the herbivorae.
Distillation of its calcium salt gives benzophenone with small quantities of other substances, but if the calcium salt be mixed with calcium formate and the mixture distilled, benzaldehyde is produced.
The calcium salts distilled with calcium formate yield aldehydes r distilled with soda-lime, ketones result.
It may be obtained synthetically by heating sodium in a current of carbon dioxide to 360° C.; by the oxidation of ethylene glycol; by heating sodium formate to 400° C. (V.