In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
He seems to have gone next to to Paris, staying perhaps with Etienne de la Forge, a Protestant merchant who suffered for his faith in February 1 53 5.
It is of the familiar type of the replacing of the simple but wasteful by the complex and economical, and it was begun unintentionally in the attempt to save fuel and labour, by increasing the size and especially the height of the forge, and by driving the bellows by means of water-power.
Valley Forge took its name from an iron forge (also called "Mountjoy forge") built on the east side of Valley Creek, near its mouth, in about 1750, and destroyed by the British in 1777.
Washington, who had spent the winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, and had materially recruited his army, immediately marched to intercept the British, and overtook them near Monmouth Court House (now Freehold), New Jersey, on the 28th of June 1778.
The metal sinks through the ignited fuel, forming, in the hearth, a spongy mass or ball, which is lifted out by the smelters at the end of each operation, and carried to the forge hammer.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
Early in the I 8th century the industry began to extend over New England and into New Jersey, the German bloomery forge being employed for reducing the ore directly to bar iron, and by the middle of that century it had taken a pretty firm hold in the Atlantic colonies.
The natural steps first of making it intentionally by putting such stones into his fire, and next of improving his fire by putting it and these stones into a cavity on the weather side of some bank with an opening towards the prevalent wind, would give a simple forge, differing only in size, in lacking forced blast, and in details of construction, from the Catalan forges and bloomaries of to-day.
In time the smith learnt how to convert this unwelcome product into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge, exposing it to the blast in such a way as to burn out most of its carbon.
Indeed it was the use of water-power that gave the smith pressure strong enough to force his blast up through a longer column of ore and fuel, and thus enabled him to increase the height of his forge, enlarge the scale of his operations, and in turn save fuel and labour.
In 1691 he became acquainted with William Fuller, whom he induced to forge another plot, though not with the success he had himself attained.