To prevent the gradual destruction of the forests by unskilful management and depredations, schools of forestry have been founded, and means have been taken for regulating the cutting of wood and for replanting districts that have been partially denuded.
3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.
(1884); Regel, Flora Rossica (1884); Brown, Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Urals (1885); Reports by Commissioners of Woods and Forests in Russia (1884) birds, even to hazel-hen (Tetrao bonasa), capercailzie (T.
Forestry is greatly developed; the breed of sheep in the Carpathians is of an improved quality, and the horses bred in the plain of the Hanna are highly esteemed.
It possesses a famous academy of mining and forestry, founded by Maria Theresa in 1760, to which are attached a remarkable collection of minerals, and a chemical laboratory.
The municipality maintains an efficient forestry department.
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
Furthermore, in order to encourage the growth and preservation of the forests, and to create systematically forest reserves, the legislature established in 1899 a State Forestry Board.
The government maintains experimental farms and forestry plantations and a veterinary department to cope with lung sickness, rinderpest, East Coast fever and such like diseases.
At the census of 1900 nearly 69% of the total population of the country derived their income from agriculture, forestry, horticulture and other agricultural pursuits.
Nearly half of them belong to the state, and in them forestry has been carried out on a scientific basis since 1879.
Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbanya, Nagyag and Felsobanya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvar; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbanya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Deva and Zagrab, and a naval school at Fiume.
Lister, Report on Forestry in Natal and Zululand (Maritzburg, 1902); Zululand Lands Delimitation Commission, 1902-4, Reports (Maritzburg, 1905); A.
Forestry also employs a certain proportion of the population, but the felling of trees is carried on wastefully, though less so than in former years.
(From 1875 onwards the balance of trade had been in favour of Austria; in 1907 it turned against her, and from this time the adverse balance showed a steady increase until 1913, when it slightly diminished.) According to the census of 1910, out of 16 million persons following an occupation 8.5 millions were engaged in agriculture and forestry, 3.6 in industr y, 1 6 in commerce and transport, 2.3 in the public services, liberal professions, etc. Agriculture is thus the basis of economic existence for the greater part of the population; and the favourable crop statistics for the last years preceding the war, and especially the record harvest of the year 1912, must have had a beneficial influence upon the economic situation.
Pupils are sent to the best foreign agricultural, forestry and mining schools, and, after going through the prescribed course, often with distinction, return to Siam to apply their knowledge with more or less success.
Forestry is a state-protected industry, the government owning over 500,000 acres of forest.
Oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
Franklin College, the academic department of the university, was opened in 1801, and afterwards the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (the School of Science, 1872), the State Normal School (co-educational, 1891), the School of Pharmacy (1903), the University Summer School (1903), the School of Forestry (1906), and the Georgia State College of Agriculture (1906), also branches of the university, were established at Athens, and what had been the Lumpkin Law School (incorporated in 1859) became the law department of the university in 1867.
The production of silk and wine, of coca and quinine; to promote forestry; to improve elementary and higher education - for all which purposes the Ministerio del Fomento is a potent engine; to encourage colonization; and, above all, to place the national credit on a sound basis.
Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.
Hitchcock, Geology of New Hampshire (Concord, 1874-1878); New Hampshire Annual Reports (1871), especially those of the Forestry Commission, Fish and Game Commission, Board of Agriculture and Board of Charities and Correction; J.
About 15% of the population are supported by agriculture and forestry, and about 18% by mining and cognate industries.
For Agriculture, see the article AGRICULTURE; for Fisheries, see FIsHERIEs; and for Forestry, see FORESTS AND FORESTRY.
On behalf of the committee appointed to deal with feudal rights, he presented to the Convention reports on the seignorial rights which were subject to compensation, on hunting and fishing rights, forestry, and kindred subjects.
Bingham, A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands (Hartford, 1848); Isabella Bird, Six Months in the Sandwich Islands (New York, 1881); Adolf Bastian, Zur Kenntnis Hawaiis (Berlin, 1883); the annual Reports of the governor of Hawaii, of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, of the Board of Commissioners on Agriculture and Forestry, and of the Hawaii Promotion Committee; and the Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society.
The state has forest reserves (918,000 acres in 1910) in 26 counties, the largest areas being in Potter, Clinton, Center, Cameron, Lycoming, Huntingdon, Union and Mifflin counties; and there is an efficient department of forestry under a state commissioner of forestry.
In 1909 the state legislature passed an act authorizing any city, borough or township of the first class to acquire, subject to the approval of the commissioner of forestry, a municipal forest; and it authorized the distribution of seedling forest trees, at cost, to those who would plant and protect them, for growing private forests.
The departments of the institution are a college of arts; schools of engineering (1903), music, and (1906) forestry; and the Cutler Academy, a preparatory school under the control of the college.
There are excellent, technical schools, an institute of agriculture and forestry at Nowa-Alexandrya, and several seminaries for teachers.
Members of the forest service undergo a preliminary course of instruction at a school of forestry, and a further course at the Institute of Forestry, Stockholm, which dates from 1828.
Leiberg, " Forest Conditions in the Northern Sierra Nevada " (1902); California Board of Forestry, Reports (1885-); semi-revolutionary rulers of 1831-1832 and 1836 (Alvarado), whose title rested on revolution, or on local choice under a national statute regarding gubernatorial vacancies.
In later times forest culture was added, and the Gerard Adriaan van Swieten schools of forestry, agriculture and horticulture were established by Major van Sweiten in memory of his son.
Special areas have been set apart on which no timber may be cut, and on which the problems of scientific forestry may be studied.
Noted academies of forestry are those of Tharandt (in Saxony), Eberswalde, Munden on the Weser, Hohenheim Year - 1570
The governor appoints, by and with the consent of the Senate of the Territory, an attorney-general, treasurer, commissioner of public lands, commissioner of agriculture and forestry, superintendent of public works, superintendent of public instruction, commissioners of public instruction, auditor and deputy-auditor, surveyor, high sheriff, members of the board of health, board of prison inspectors, board of registration, inspectors of election, &c. All such officers are appointed for four years except the commissioners of public instruction and the members of the said 1 Large numbers of Japanese immigrants have used the Hawaiian Islands merely as a means of gaining admission at the mainland ports of the United States.
There are, besides, a technical college in Hanover, an academy of forestry in Munden, a mining college in Clausthal, a military school and a veterinary college (both in Hanover), 26 gymnasia (classical schools), 18 semi-classical, and 14 commercial schools.
Educational facilities are also furnished by the state through university and school of mines at University, near Grand Forks, normal schools (opened in 1890) at Valley City and Mayville, an agricultural college and experiment station (1890) at Fargo, a normal and industrial school (opened in 1899) at Ellendale, a school for the deaf (1890) at Devils Lake, a scientific school (opened in 1903) at Wahpeton, and a school of forestry at Bottineau.
Saxony is particularly well-equipped with technical schools, the textile industries being especially fostered by numerous schools of weaving, embroidery and lace-making; but the mining academy at Freiberg and the school of forestry at Tharandt are probably the most widely known.
(For the work of the botanic, forestry and scientific department, the government plantations, &c., see the Colonial Report [Miscellaneous], No.
Those related to agriculture, forestry, mining, &c. Lastly, encouragement is given to all branches of industry concerned with the manufacture of articles used in the more important Hungarian industries, i.e.