The posterior, so-called processus Zygomaticus is very variable; in many Galli it encloses a foramen by distally joining the orbital process.
In Larus, it extends far enough to help to bound the foramen magnum.
Fm, Foramen magnum.
Fin, Foramen magnum.
Fm, Foramen magnum.
A membranous, or ossified, tube which rises from a pneumatic foramen in the os articulare, on the median side of the articulation, and passes upwards between the quadrate and lateral occipital bone, opening into the cavity of the middle ear.
- Scapula, coracoid and clavicle, meet to form the foramen triosseum, through which passes the tendon of the supracoracoideus, or subclavius muscle to the tuberculum superius of the humerus.
Near the base of the precoracoidal process is a small foramen for the passage of the nervus supracoracoideus.
The acetabulum is completely surrounded by these three bones, but its cup always retains an open foramen; from its posterior rim arises the strong antitrochanter.
This primitive condition occurs only in the Odontornithes, Ratitae and Tinami; in all others this notch becomes converted into a foramen ischiadicum, through which pass the big stems of the ischiadic nerves and most of the bloodvessels of the hind-limb.
The shaft of the pubis runs parallel with that of the ischium, with which it is connected by a short ligamentous or bony bridge; this cuts off from the long incisura pubo-ischiadica a proximal portion, the foramen obturatum, for the passage of the obturator nerve.
The femur often possesses a well visible pneumatic foramen on the median side of the proximal end of its shaft.
This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.
In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
Puncturella, mantle and shell with a foramen in front of the apex, British.
The ventral valve is usually the larger, and in many genera, such as Terebratula and Rhynchonella, has a prominent beak or umbo, with a circular or otherwise shaped foramen at or near its extremity, partly bounded by one or two plates, termed a deltidium.
Through the foramen passes a peduncle, by which the animal is in many species attached to submarine objects during at least a portion of its existence.
F, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (= occlusors, Hancock); c, divaricator (=cardinal muscles, King, = muscles diducteurs principaux, Gratiolet); c', accessory divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, Gratiolet); b, ventral adjustor (=ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire superieure, Gratiolet); b', peduncular muscle.
Large chevron-bones are suspended to the vertebrae of the tail, which was massive, and probably afforded a support when the monster was sitting up. The humerus has no foramen, and the FIG.
The vertebrae of the neck unite by nearly flat surfaces, the humerus has lost the foramen, or perforation, at the lower end, and the third trochanter to the femur may also be wanting.
All the above genera differ from Megatherium in having a foramen on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus.
The hind limbs are very strong; the massive femur has a large pneumatic foramen; the tibia has a bony bridge on the anterior surface of the lower portion, a character in which the moas agree only with Apteryx amongst the other Ratitae.
The lachrymal forj amen is always within the orbital margin; and in many species the infra-orbital foramen is very large (in some as large as the orbit) and transmits part of the masseter muscle.
T, temporal muscle; m, masseter; m', portion of masseter transmitted through the infra-orbital foramen, the superior maxillary nerve passing outwards between it and the maxilla.
The humerus has no supra-condylar foramen, and the forearm bones are distinct; and in most species the fore foot has five digits with the phalanges normally developed, the first toe being but rarely rudimentary or absent.
The humerus often has a foramen (entepicondylar) on the inner side of its lower end; the tibia and fibula may be separate or united; but the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are also united, while the centrale is free.
4, 5, 6); and, with one exception, have rooted cheek-teeth, the premolar-formula being zr 1 The infra-orbital foramen is also narrower, and the tympanic bulla is cellular.
Stangeri, allied in the characters of their skulls to the undermentioned Xerus, and with a very large pre-orbital foramen in the more typical forms. The third, Funisciurus, of which F.
The tibia and fibula are united inferiorly, the tympanic bulla is hollow and the infra-orbital foramen narrow.
In the skull the infra-orbital foramen is narrow, and postorbital processes and an alisphenoid canal are absent.
The lachrymal foramen in the skull is low down and forms an elongated slit.
It is therefore very probable that the authors quoted in (2) were mistaken in their identification of the elements at the base of the foramen magnum.
A parietal foramen; scales or bony scutes frequently present, especially on the ventral region, which is further protected by three large bony plates - interclavicle and clavicles, the latter in addition to cleithra.
The pineal foramen, in the parietal bones, is as constantly present as it is absent in the other orders.
V, Foramen of exit Fr, Frontal.
Foramen by Pt', Pterygoid, anwhich the or terior process.
The basal line of the cranium from the lower border of the foramen magnum to the incisor border of the palate is nearly straight.
The base of the cranium is long and narrow; the alisphenoid is very obliquely perforated by the foramen rotundum, but the foramen ovale is confluent with the large foramen lacerum medium behind.
A large number of mammals possess a perforation, or foramen, on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus, and also a projection on the shaft of the femur known as the third trochanter.
From its occurrence in so many of the lower vertebrates, the entepicondylar foramen of the humerus, as it is called, is regarded by Dr E.
In man the occipital foramen, through which passes the spinal cord, is placed just behind the centre of the base of the skull, which is thus evenly balanced in the erect posture, whereas the gorilla, which goes habitually on all fours, and whose skull is inclined forward, in accordance with this posture has the foramen farther back.
The heart is practically quadrilocular, the right and left halves being completely partitioned, except for a small communication, the foramen Panizzae, between the right and left aortae where these cross each other on leaving their respective ventricles.